1. 2 Bell Beakers from Germany: Y-haplogroup
Just in time with my recent speculations about post-Neolithic events
affecting Europe, we now have a paper of a Bell Beaker sample from Germany. Like
with earlier Neolithic samples there are two camps in trying to explain the Bell
Beaker phenomenon: one of them saw only a cultural phenomenon epitomized by
burials with the eponymous Bell Beaker pottery; the other saw a true invading
population. This is how Carleton Coon described them:
The Dinaric type, with which the Rhenish Bell beakers are associated, is one
which entered the western Mediterranean by sea from the east, and eventually
moved, by some route yet to be determined in an accurate manner, to the north,
and eventually to central Europe.
As such, the Bell Beaker phenomenon is a test case for the pots-not-people
paradigm. There is ample physical anthropological evidence that the people of
Beaker burials had a distinctive physical type which contrasted with the
long-headed type typical of the era, so I have always been on the "people" side
of the conflict.
I will update this entry when I read the paper.
American Journal of Physical Anthropology DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.22074
Emerging genetic patterns of the european neolithic: Perspectives from a late
neolithic bell beaker burial site in Germany'
Esther J. Lee et al.
The transition from hunting and gathering to agriculture in Europe is associated
with demographic changes that may have shifted the human gene pool of the region
as a result of an influx of Neolithic farmers from the Near East. However, the
genetic composition of populations after the earliest Neolithic, when a diverse
mosaic of societies that had been fully engaged in agriculture for some time
appeared in central Europe, is poorly known. At this period during the Late
Neolithic (ca. 2,800'2,000 BC), regionally distinctive burial patterns
associated with two different cultural groups emerge, Bell Beaker and Corded
Ware, and may reflect differences in how these societies were organized. Ancient
DNA analyses of human remains from the Late Neolithic Bell Beaker site
2. Brit-Am Answers Query on DNA Findings
and Israelite Ancestry.
I had my mtdna tested a few years ago and my mtdna is T.
I have read that it originated in Mesopotamia.
I have also read that it is found more in Egypt than Europe.
It has been found among the Cherokee and some Palestinians, Also found among
Arabs in Saudi Arabia.
On my matches chart on family tree.com my matches are the strongest for
Scottland ,England, Ireland.
You know Yair,my Great Great Grandmother had a Hebrew name her name was
Rebecca.. And her husbands name was Laban.
I have been told by my Mother that her Father's Great Grandmother was
But she didn't say that there was any Indian on her mother's side and yet,my
mtdna T goes back from me through my Great Great Grandmother Rebecca.
I have found that mtdna T is found among Arabs and some Jews.
Of a truth, All my life i have felt a connection to Arabs and Jews and i
love them both.
...And I am searching for who I am.
Do I have Arab, or Hebrew, or both some how?
Could it not be possible that at some time in history the some of Ismael and
Issacc's people married and had kids?
I know that Abraham is the Father of both Issacc and Ishmeal.
Why would my mtdna be found among Arabs and yet my Great Great Grandmother
had a Hebrew name and her Husband?
I assume that all my ancestors came from Europe but am not positive.
my Grandmother said her Father had an Irish accent.
My Great Great Grandmother died 1912 so she had to be born on back in the
But this is as far with her as I have been able to go in family tree stuff.
Thanks and God bless.
mtDNA T is quite frequent in Ireland but is also found all over Europe.
It may be yet another indication of Israelite or other Middle East ancestry
Also the Cherokee connection is of interest.
DNA is interesting. It adds something. It opens up possibilities. It is worth
taking an interest in.
Nevertheless it is not enough in itself and it leaves too may questions
There is definitely some degree of environmental influence that helps determine
This has been admitted concerning mtDNA.
#4. HumanmtDNA subject to selection by climate'
Anyway, Brit-Am emphasize BIBLICAL Proof concerning the Ten Tribes.
All other evidence is incidental and controversial though we also use it.
God bless you
3. Sub-Saharan Africans are Partly of
Ancient Mediterranean Type!
Dual origins of Sub-Saharan Africans?
A reader quotes from Coon's The Living Races of Man (1965):
''Meanwhile we may note that a detailed analysis of 571 modern Negro crania,
made by advanced mathematical techniques, has shown that these crania gravitate
between two poles, a Mediterranean Caucasoid and a Pygmy one. The former type is
again divisible into an ordinary Mediterranean and a Western Asian type, which
suggests more than a single northern point of origin for the Caucasoid element.
As we shall in greater detail in Chapter 8 and 9, the Negroes resemble
Caucasoids closely a number of genetic traits that are inherited in a simple
fashion. Examples of these are fingerprints, types of earwax, and the major
blood groups. The Negroes also have some of the same local, predominantly
African, blood types as the Pymies.
This evidence suggests that the Negroes are not a primary sub-species but rather
a product of mixture between invading Caucasoids and Pygmies who lived on the
edges of the forest, which at the end of the Pleistocene extended farther north
and east than it does now.''
Since I'm not one to reject old theories just because they're old, I decided to
test this particular idea....
African populations fall along a cline towards West Eurasian populations, with
the most isolated Mbuti Pygmies on one end, and a tight blob of West Eurasian
populations on the other. Hence, there is evidence for variable affiliation of
Sub-Saharans with West Eurasians, but no real evidence for variable affiliation
of West Eurasians with Sub-Saharans, except for the Mozabites and HGDP
(Human Genome Diversity Project) Arabs, with their well-known African admixture.
Nor can the results be explained in terms of more recent common ancestry of
African farmers with Eurasians in general, because African populations fall in a
clear cline towards West Eurasian populations.
While I would hesitate to say that the above results prove the correctness of
Coon's theory, they're certainly quite consistent with it. It may very well be
that Y-haplogroup E1b1 bearers from East Africa, descended from Y-haplogroup
DE-YAP from Eurasia are ultimately responsible for the introduction of the
Caucasoid component into Africa.
4. Scotland's DNA: Descended from lost
tribes? and related to Napoleon
by STEPHEN MCGINTY
Published on Tuesday 17 April 2012 02:40
SCOTS are the descendants of lost tribes who fought the Romans, tribesmen
from the Sahara and the diminutive conqueror of Europe, Napoleon Bonaparte.
ScotlandsDNA, the groundbreaking research project that probes far beyond the ink
stains of family trees by analysing the genetic make-up of Scottish men and
women, has unveiled its interim results, which show that 1 per cent of all Scots
are descended from the Berber and Tuareg tribesmen of the Sahara.
In a radical re-drawing of the genetic map of Scotland, the project has revealed
that the ancient lineage of Scots is far more colourful and complicated than
ever imagined. After testing DNA samples from almost 1,000 Scots, the project,
led by geneticist Dr Jim Wilson at Edinburgh University, found that 15 per cent
of men with the surname Stewart are descendents of the Royal Stewart line.
And in a surprising twist, the team discovered that a tiny fraction of Scots can
trace their ancestry back to the tribesmen of the Sahara. ...
'I didn't believe it at first and checked it twice. But more than one, in fact
quite a few of our participants had this marker that is only found in and around
the Sahara and among the blue men of the Tuareg.
'So what on earth is it doing in Scotland' I didn't know. It took me a little
while to work it out but what I learned was that it was spread to Spain by the
Moorish conquest of Spain, and then it came up the Atlantic margins, along the
coast and up to France and then up to Scotland.'
Today the first 500 people who took part in the project will attend a
presentation at the Royal Society of Edinburgh where they will be presented with
their results. Among them will be people whose ancestors were the Maeatae, a
lost tribe whose historic homelands were around Stirling and who fought Roman
legions in 208 AD. The tribe was mentioned in historical sources until the 8th
century, after which it vanished into the mists of time.
For Mr Moffat, the author of The Scots: A Genetic Journey, the results have been
fascinating. He said: 'When the great Roman emperor Septimius Severus invaded
Scotland with the largest army ever seen north of the Tweed, 40,000 legionaries
and auxiliaries and a supporting fleet, he fought the Maeatae. They were
mentioned by Roman historians as a fierce people and much later, noted by
Adomnan, the biographer of St Columba.
'And then they disappeared from history,' Mr Moffat said. 'Now they are found.
DNA has uncovered a high concentration of a distinctive marker clustered around
Stirling and the foothills of the Ochils ' the homeland of the fierce Maeatae.
These are stories only DNA can tell.'
Among those who have had their family history turned on its head is the comedian
and radio presenter Fred Macaulay, as it was thought that he would have been of
Viking descent as his surname meant Mac-Olaf. However, the DNA tests showed that
his ancestors were not Hebridean Vikings but Irish and were probably captured
and sold as slaves at the large slave market at Dublin some time in the 9th
century....Six other men who took part share Macaulay's DNA and the same story.
The DNA of the Duke of Buccleuch was found to be an exact match of a descendant
of Charles Stewart of Ardshiel, who fought at Culloden, both men descended from
Alan, the Seneschal of Dol, a Breton aristocrat. His family came to Britain in
1066 with William the Conqueror and then made its way to Scotland to found the
5. Case closed: blonde Melanesians
As a small child perusing old physical anthropology books I would occasionally
stumble upon images of people of Oceanian stock with light hair color. I would
wonder: is this a biological or cultural feature' In other words, were people
bleaching their hair' If it was biological, was it heritable, or was it simply
malnutrition' Another aspect of the phenotype was also straightforward: it did
not seem that light hair color resulted in any concomitant lightening of the
skin. Granting that this was a heritable biological trait, the questions then
were simple: was this trait an independent occurrence of de-pigmentation in
Oceania, or was it due to introgression of European alleles'
First, one must note that this is not an isolated feature in Oceania. Rather,
blondism crops up in the Solomon Islands, in New Guinea, as well as among some
Australian desert groups. This in itself should make us skeptical of the model
of European admixture. Additionally, blue eyes, which exhibits a higher
frequency in Europeans than blonde hair, is not similarly common in these
populations. But all this speculation is now a historical curiosity. ...
Naturally blond hair is rare in humans and found almost exclusively in Europe
and Oceania. ....
So how did the Oceanians come to have such a high frequency of this trait'
Here's a comment from one of the preeminent biological anthropologists of
The mutation, which has no obvious advantages, likely arose by chance in one
individual and drifted to a high frequency in the Solomon Islands because the
original population was small, says Jonathan Friedlaender, an anthropologist
emeritus at Temple University in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, who was not
involved in the study. 'This whole area seems to have been populated by very
small groups of people making it across these stepping-stone islands, so you do
have very dramatic effects in fluctuations of gene frequency.'...
But there's a very good reason I never expected there to be recent selection
driving this anyhow: Australian Aboriginals sometimes manifest blonde hair, and
the best genetic data suggests separation from Melanesians of at least 10,000
years. Additionally, the Solomon Islands were not part of Sahul, so that's a
conservative estimate. We don't know if the Aboriginals have the same TRYP1
mutation, but there's the same tendency toward dark skin and light hair amongst
them. It also seems rather suspicious to me that the highest frequency of blonde
hair outside of West Eurasia is all amongst Oceanian populations, who are
phylogenetically a distinct clade....
Finally, I want to note that this really does confirm that as an overall trait
controlled by a relatively small number of genes pigmentation in the lightening
direction has a huge mutational target on it. Remember that East and West
Eurasians are light skinned for different reasons. And in regards to skin color,
an interesting point is that Melanesians, in particular Solomon Islanders, are
amongst the most genetically similar to Africans when it comes to variation on
these loci. TYRP1 is quite the exception.