1. The Arab Beduin Intruders of Southern
Are the Negev Bedouin an Indigenous People?
Fabricating Palestinian History
by Havatzelet Yahel, Ruth Kark, and Seth J. Frantzman
Middle East Quarterly
Summer 2012, pp. 3-14 (view PDF)
The Negev Bedouin
Until the twentieth century the Bedouin of the Middle East, including those of
the Negev, were livestock-raising nomads whose movements were dictated by a
constant search for pasture and water. It has long been noted that what
characterizes the Bedouin is their relationship to the tribe, rather than to a
specific place or territory.
Among the Bedouin tribes living in the Negev today, most view themselves as
descendants of nomadic tribes from the Arabian Peninsula. In fact, most of
them arrived fairly recently, during the late eighteenth and the nineteenth
centuries, from the deserts of Arabia, Transjordan, Sinai, and Egypt. Part
of this migration occurred in the wake of Napoleon's invasion of Egypt and
Palestine in 1798-99 and subsequent Egyptian rule under Muhammad Ali and his son
Ibrahim Pasha (r. 1831-41). During this period, Egyptian forces moved through
Sinai and into the Negev using the coastal road that runs through Rafah,
accompanied by numerous camp followers, peasants, and Bedouin. Some of the
Egyptian peasants who followed in the footsteps of the army established new
settlements and neighborhoods in Palestine, others joined Bedouin tribes in the
Ottoman tax registers demonstrate that the tribes which lived in the Negev in
1596-97 are not those residing there today. According to historians
Wolf-Dieter Hutteroth and Kamal Abdulfattah, the tax registers that reflect
material collected in those years show names of forty-three Bedouin tribes
living in what became Mandatory Palestine, including six in the Negev. There is
not much information on what became of those tribes. However, the names of
the tribes currently living in the Negev do not appear on the tax registers from
1596. The Ottoman government did not maintain reliable records for this area
after 1596, so these registers are the best indicators of which tribes existed
in the early Ottoman period. Clinton Bailey, a scholar of Bedouin culture, also
found no evidence in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries of the continuity
or existence of Bedouin tribes, which later lived in the Negev in the eighteenth
and nineteenth centuries.
Bedouin consolidation of their Negev foothold was achieved through armed
intertribal struggles as well as raids on established Arab settlements that
caused the latter's demise. Although the nomads depended upon sedentary
populations for survival, they looked down upon them while settled Arabs viewed
the Bedouin as opportunists or worse, as cruel robbers. Numerous authors
have documented the Bedouin role in conquering the Negev as well as the
plundering and expulsion of settled Arabs from other parts of Palestine.
British surveyor and archeologist Claude R. Conder, writing in the 1880s,
described a situation of unending war between the Bedouin tribes and the settled
Nomadism continued in Palestine until the beginning of the twentieth century
when a transition to semi-nomadic life and settlement took place.
Concurrently, there was a gradual shift in the manner in which the Bedouin
related to the land, from common exploitation for grazing by all members of the
tribe to private use. Simultaneously, there was a gradual transition from
animal husbandry to agriculture. By 2000, animal husbandry was practiced by
only about 10 percent of the Bedouin, and many of the younger generation have
expressed reservations about maintaining their parents' lifestyle.
Prior to the establishment of Israel there were about 65,000 Negev Bedouin.
During the 1948 war and in its immediate aftermath, most left for neighboring
states, reducing the Negev Bedouin population to about 11,000. Since then,
however, numbers have dramatically increased to almost 200,000 persons in 2011.
There has also been significant improvement in education and in health indices
among Israeli Bedouin. However, when compared with other groups in Israeli
society, including urban and rural Arabs, they remain at the lowest
It was, in fact, the Bedouin who imposed themselves on established settlers in
the Negev, displacing them and destroying their villages. The Ottoman Muslim
order, which they confronted upon arrival, was similar to what they had
experienced in the other parts of the empire from which they migrated to
Palestine. Britain was indeed a foreign power, but it never attempted to
colonize Palestine as its presence there was transitory from the start in line
with the League of Nations mandate. As for the Jews, far from being colonial
intruders, they were descendants of the country's ancient inhabitants,
authorized by the international community?as represented by the League of
Nations?to reestablish their independence in the ancestral homeland.
The Bedouin are, without doubt, a small minority in Israel, not only of the
entire population but even within the country's Arab citizens. Indeed, until the
middle of the Mandate period, the Bedouin were considered by the Palestinian
Arab peasants as their enemies.
Recently there have been signs of an abandonment of an independent Bedouin
identity and the gradual adoption of a Palestinian Arab identity accompanied by
increasing involvement in Muslim fundamentalism. A 2003 study concluded that
the Bedouin should no longer be considered a "society unto themselves" and that
their identity today is Palestinian Arab, lacking any common tribal element, and
is in the process of being shaped anew.
2. Most British Blondes Are Fake
OCTOBER 23, 2011
Why we're all dyeing to be blonde; SHOCK AS 80 PER CENT OF WOMEN WITH GOLDEN
HAIR ADMIT THEY FAKE IT.
By Jill Foster and Jane Simon
May 19, 2004
IT'S a debate which has raged since the dawn of hair-dye ? who has more fun,
blondes or brunettes?
It would seem that, for British women at least, the answer is to reach for the
Four out of 10 women in the UK are blonde but more than 80 per cent are faking
it, according to a survey published yesterday.
And there are regional differences, too.
Manchester has the highest proportion of blondes, real or fake, with 45 per cent
of women in the northern city golden haired.
Bournemouth has the highest proportion of bottle blondes ? only eight per cent
of blondies in the southern seaside town are natural.
BRITAIN'S FAIR CITIES
CITY - % OF BLONDES (% NATURAL)
Manchester - 45 (24)
Bournemouth - 43 (8)
Birmingham - 43 (21)
Newcastle - 40 (23)
London - 39 (19)
Brighton - 38 (25)
Cardiff - 36 (1)
3. Men's Hair and Eye Color Preferences.
SEPTEMBER 7, 2011
The British men surveyed here had a preference for women with brown/black hair
(61.7%) and blue/green eyes (57.7%). The remaining 38.3% preferred blond/red
hair, and 42.3% preferred brown/hazel eyes. Men in France, Spain, Italy, the
U.S. and Brazil were also surveyed, and black was the most popular hair color in
all of those countries, while brown and green eyes were preferred.
Badoo, the world's largest Social Network for meeting new people, has polled
2,000 UK males to find the features they find most attractive in the opposite
sex. The results have been surprising, with blondes being beaten by brunettes.
In fact a third (33.1%) of all those polled said they find brown hair more
attractive than blonde (29.5%), black (28.6%) and red (8.8%), contradicting the
adage that gentlemen prefer blondes.
A further surprise the study uncovered is that 38.8% of guys looked for a dress
size of 12-14 in their perfect woman, with only 10% looking for a size 6-8. This
proves that whilst magazines fill their pages with skinny models, UK males
actually prefer a more average build. Only 4.2% preferred size 18+ whilst a
curvy size 14-18 was the second most popular with 25.5% of the vote.
Blue eyes still rule the roost in the UK however, with a massive 40.2% of guys
preferring blue eyes over brown (29.2%), green (17.5%) and hazel (13.1%).
Badoo also ran the study in France, Spain, Italy, US and Brazil and came back
with surprising results. In fact only the French said they preferred their women
skinny with all others saying they prefer average to curvy women. In all of the
countries surveyed, black was the most popular hair colour (except the UK). The
UK was also the only country that opted for blue eyes, with brown and green
topping the table around the world.