[Jer 31:21] Set thee up waymarks, make thee high heaps: set thine heart toward the highway, even the way which thou wentest: turn again, O virgin of Israel, turn again to these thy cities.
These are dolmens and megalithic monuments. Below is an extract from Ephraim (book by Yair Davidiy) chapter five. Recent research confirms the claims made even though conventionally accepted findings would dispute our dating. We have re-examined this subject and confirmed our findings but need to do much more in this area.
THE PATHS OF ISRAELITE MIGRATION WESTWARD AS DEMONSTRATED BY MEGALITHIC MONUMENTS ERECTED BY "DIRECTION" OF THE PROPHET JEREMIAH!
types of Stone Monuments dating to ancient times are found in
DOLMENS AND THE BIBLE
The ancient Hebrews are recorded setting up stones as monuments. Jacob set up a pillar and anointed it: *
"And Jacob rose up early in the morning, and took the stone that he had set up for his pillows, and set it up for a pillar, and poured oil upon the top of it. "And he called the name of that place Beth-el: but the name of that city was Luz at the first. (Genesis 28;18-19). He later set up a pillar and a heap of stones together (cf. 35;14). "And Jacob set up a pillar in the place where he talked with him, even a pillar of stone: and he poured a drink offering thereon, and he poured oil thereon (Genesis 35;14). *
"Now therefore come thou, let us make a covenant, I and you; and let it be for a witness between me and you. "And Jacob took a stone, and set it up for a pillar. "And Jacob said unto his brethren, Gather stones; and they took stones, and made an heap: and they did eat there upon the heap.
"And Laban called it Jegar-sahadutha: but Jacob called it Galeed." (Genesis31;44-47). Joshua set up 12 stones in Gilgal (Joshua 4;3) and the name "Gilgal" connotes both circle and heap15. Single pillars (menhirs), or
Heaps of stones (
is mentioned in several other Biblical passages (Joshua 7;25-26, Joshua 8;29ff., Joshua 14;26, 1-Samuel 7;2, 2-Samuel 18;17). The intention of these monuments was the establishment of a concrete sign commemorating some event whose memory was worthy of perpetuation. The monument had to be
obviously man-made, apparent, and blatant to all and not much more than that. On occasion it is mentioned (Genesis 35;7-14, Joshua 24;26, Judges 6;11,21) that these stone monuments were in the proximity of an oak tree and oak trees were to be important in Celtic Druidical worship.
* "And Joshua wrote these words in the book of the law of God, and took a great stone, and set it up there under an oak, that was by the sanctuary of the LORD" (Joshua 24;26).
Megalithic monuments and dolmens were once found
throughout the Land of Israel though many have been destroyed and most of those
remaining are in the Golan and east of the Jordan where they are known to the Arabs as "Kubur Beni Israil",
i.e. "Graves of the Children of Israel"16. Certain features of these
monuments, such as the existence of cupholes, etc., are also found on similar
structures in Britain17. "The
remains thus described are nearly identical in character with those which in
"highheaps" and "waymarks" which in Hebrew connect linguistically with stone monuments such as dolmens. To properly appreciate the point made in its right context the whole of Jeremiah chapter 31 should be considered: Jeremiah (Chapter 31) speaks mainly concerning Ephraim and the rest of the
Lost Ten Tribes. This chapter contains a series of messages highly pertinent to our subject.
time..will I be the God of all the families of
Notice above the linkage of north country, coasts of
Ephraim, and "Isles afar off".
Jeremiah continues and speaks of Rachel, the mother of the Tribes of Joseph and Benjamin who is pictured as having wept when her descendants were taken into exile from Rama in the territory of Ephraim. She is told to be comforted for the work has been done i.e. the historical task of the Lost Ten Tribes in exile will have been fulfilled and the sons are coming home to their own territory from the land of the enemy. Ephraim likens himself to an untrained young bull (bullock):
"I have surely heard Ephraim bemoaning himself thus; thou hast chastised me, and I was chastised as a bullock unaccustomed to the yoke: turn thou to me, and I shall be turned; for thou art the LORD my God" (Jeremiah 31;18).
The word used for "young bull" (i.e. "bullock") in Hebrew is "AEGEL" and historically "Aegel" was a diminutive for the ethnic name "Angle" and employed interchangeably with it. "Aegel", states Rashi (the foremost Medieval Jewish Commentator, 1040-1105) on this verse, was a name applied to Ephraim. The English nickname themselves "John Bull". Ephraim shall
return. The process of return, it is inferred, will begin when a feeling of the need for repentance will just begin to be aroused. This feeling
will make itself felt in great intensity after the return is under way. Ephraim reproaches himself for the sins of his youth.
(31;20) "Is not Ephraim my dear son? Is he not a pleasant child? For since I spake against him, I do earnestly remember him still:
therefore my bowels are troubled for him; I will surely have mercy upon him, says The LORD.
verse (31;21) in Jeremiah may well be referring to Dolmens which are large
stones set table fashion over others and often covered by large piles of rocks
and stone. The dolmens and other related stone monuments form a connecting -link between
31;21: "Set yourself up waymarks,
make high heaps: set your heart towards the highways; the way you went in: turn
again, O virgin of
translated above as "Waymarks" in the original Hebrew is
"Tzionim" which strictly speaking means "signs" but in
spoken Hebrew is usually used to denote a stone erection marking a grave or
event. Amongst the Classical
Authoritative Rabbinical Commentators the most literal explanation of this
verse is that given by the "Radak" (Rabbi David Kimchi, 1157-1236) of
"Set Yourself Up Waymarks" (Jeremiah 31) : "This was directed to the Community of Israel, that in the generation when they would be exiled they should set up waymarks [i.e. "tsionim"] such as piled-up stones or stone monuments to recognize the path [of migration] meaning to say that even though you will be exiled hope is not lost and you are still destined to return to these your cities. (Radak on Jeremiah 31;21).
Bearing in mind that according to the previous verse (31;20) Jeremiah is addressing himself to Ephraim, the verse in Jeremiah 31;21 may therefore be understood to say:
"Set yourself up stone monuments and high heaps of stones [i.e. Megalithic monuments!]. Set your heart towards the prepared way:
the way in which you went. Turn back o virgin of
The mode of expression employed by the Prophet should be understood differently from that used by Moses. When Moses gave a commandment it had to be obeyed. When the prophets issue an order concerning future action it means they are predicting what will happen and telling us what must be learned from this action. Jeremiah is saying that (for whatever reason) the exiled Israelites will have stone monuments set up through which it will be possible for them in the future to learn of their paths of migration away from the Holy Land and by which they may be persuaded to return.
The inferred commandment to the exiles to erect "Tsionim" is therefore applicable to the dolmens and other so-called "Stone-Age"
("Megalithic") monuments. Many of these
monuments actually date from the Bronze and Iron Age periods. They are
mentioned in the Bible as being set up by the Hebrew Patriarchs and Judges as
well as by others. Dolmens and related monuments are found in the
megalithic dolmens found in the Golan and
rock slabs. A heap of stones usually covered the
dolmens, creating a tumulus. Such structures are known in
Chalcolithic period, but in the Golan and
recall similar megalithic burial structures known
artifacts are frequently found together with or in the vicinity of
dolmens. Iron was largely introduced to
with the coming of the Celts. The Iron Age in ancient
"Traffic-sign" or "wayfare-indicator" and waymarks as noted equal dolmens. The verse (Jeremiah 31;12) may therefore in the Hebrew be understood further as saying:
"Establish waymarks [i.e."Tsionim" =dolmens] for
yourself, set up for yourself high-heaps [i.e.
put your heart
[i.e. pay attention] to the pathways you went by and return, o virgin of