Jehu lost control of the territories east of the Jordan, i.e. the lands
of Reuben, Gad, and the half-tribe of Menasseh. They were conquered by Hazael,
King of Aram. Archaeological evidence indicates that the Israelites in these
regions were heavily influenced by Aramaic culture and language. This
is important in tracing the present-day descendants of these Israelite Tribes.
Joash: During his reign Northern Israel
was oppressed by Aram (Syria) but was saved by his son Jehoash.
defeated Amaziah of Judah who had attacked him.
Jeroboam-ii conquered Moab and Syria. He co-operated with Judah and gave northern Syria and southeast Turkey
over to Judaean control. In this region
a colony of Judaeans (Yadi) was established
or had been set up previously and was re-consolidated. They adjoined
a northern settlement from the Tribe of Dan.
Jeroboam-ii co-operated with the Phoenicians who consisted of Canaanites,
Israelites, and others.
The next three monarchs of Judah were Uzziah
(Azariah), Jotham, and Ahaz. During their reign the rulers of northern Israel were Jeroboam-2, Zechariah, Shalum, Menahem,
Pekahiah, and Pekah.
Uzziah (Azariah) of Judah
co-operated with Jeroboam-2 of Israel.
Jeroboam gave Uzziah control of Cilicia in southeast Turkey where a colony
of Judaeans was established alongside a colony of Dan. Dan and Judah were frequently together. Later in Denmark
the Danes (from Dan) were accompanied by Jutes from Judah. King Uzziah strengthened fortifications,
developed and produced war-machines and military equipment. He defeated
the Philistines and Arabs. He encouraged agriculture and industry, irrigation
works, and exports to Arabia and India. He increased gold and silver.
In the latter years of his reign he was stricken with leprosy and was considered
as one "dead" while his son reigned in his stead.
In Israel Jeroboam-2 was followed by his
son Zechariah who ruled in Samaria for six months before being assassinated
and replaced by Shallum who reigned for a month.
Shallum was killed by Menachem
who ruled for 10 years.
Menachem paid tribute to Assyria.
was followed by his son Pekahiah who ruled for two years. Pekahiah was killed
by Pekah the son of Remalia.
In the days of Pekah Tiglathpileser exiled
all the northern area of the kingdom of Israel:
Ijon, Abel-beth-Maachah, Janoah, Kedesh, Hazor,
Gilead, Galilee, Naphtali.
This was the overwhelming bulk of the
: After Uzziah, Jotham
of Judah built forts, strengthened defenses. He subdued the Ammonites.
Ahaz of Judah worshipped Moloch. Practices
associated with Moloch such as jumping over fires etc. at the "Beltane" festival
were practiced until recently in northern England, Scotland, and Sweden.
This festival was called "Beltane" in Celtic which means "fire of Bel". "Bel"
is a middle Eastern alternate pronunciation of Baal. Moloch was another form
of the god "Baal". The Edomites revolted against Ahaz and took captives from
Judah. The Philistines also conquered territories. Pekah of Israel and Rezin of Syria attacked Judah. Many Jews
were taken captive into Damascus. Damascus of the Bible was on the Euphrates
and was not identical with Damascus of today which is further south. The
captives of Judah that were taken to Damascus
apparently eventually merged with exiles from the Northern
Kingdom. The Assyrians (under Sennacherib) were also later to attack Judah and take captives. One way and another a good
portion of Judah actually went into Exile with
the Ten Tribes and were mixed amongst them. Even so, "Judah" in Biblical terms refers to those Jews who remained and kept their religion and whose
identity is known. Those whose identity is unknown are counted together
with the northern Israelites who are referred
to separately. The future Messiah is to come from Judah
meaning from amongst the present-day Jewish
Pekah of Israel slew 120,000 men in Judah and also took many captives which were later
released. Rezin of Syria took Elath (in the extreme southeast, on the Gulf
of Akaba) from Judah, expelled the inhabitants
and replaced them with Syrians. The Edomites also attacked Judah and took captives.
Ahaz was followed by Hezekiah as King of Judah.
The End of Israel and the Final Exile of the Ten Tribes
Pekah was followed by Hosea who was the last king of Israel
At this stage only an area around the city of Samaria remained of the Northern Kingdom.
After a siege of three years Samaria was taken by the Assyrians ands all its inhabitants exiled.
The Kings of Assyria later settled pagans in the region of Samaria who became known as
"Samaritans". The Samaritans adopted aspects of the Hebrew religion
and absorbed a few remnants of those who remained of the Northern Israelites
Hezekiah of Judah
Hezekiah purified the temple in the first year of his reign and in the sixth year the Northern Kingdom was exiled.
In the 14th year of Hezekiah the Assyrian King Sennacherib captured all the unwalled cities of Judah and exiled their inhabitants.
Sennacherib besieged Jerusalem but was temporarily diverted by an invasion of Tirhaka of Cush (translated as "Ethiopia").
Sennacherib returned to seige Jerusalem but 185,000 of his warriors were smitten dead by an angel of God.
Sennacherib returned to Nineveh where he was assasinated by his sons who fled to Ararat (translated as "Armenia")..
To be Continued