The Kings of Israel and Judah
The Northern Ten Tribes were to be exiled by the Assyrians and lose knowledge of their identity. Prior to their exile they had constituted their own separate Kingdom of Israel. The Kingdoms of Israel and Judah existed alongside each other for about two hundred years. Their separate histories are recorded in the Bible, mainly in the Books of Kings and of Chronicles. Brit-Am, Movement of the Ten Tribes, is conducting an ongoing Biblical Study on this and other matters. The article below lists the Kings of Israel and Judah, mentions briefly major features of their reigns, and attempts to indicate the inter-relationships of the two polities with each other. The overall picture hopefully will add something to the study of Scripture.

The Kings of Israel and Judah

*(Note: The kingdom of Israel divided into two parts, the northern kingdom (Israel/Ephraim) represented in red, and the southern kingdom (Judah/Jews), represented in blue.)

Source of Table:

Part One

Saul, David, and Solomon ruled over all twelve tribes of Israel.  When Solomon died the Kingdom split in two:  the northern half consisted of ten tribes and was ruled by Jeroboam, son of Nebat.   It is referred to as "Israel", "Ephraim", or "Samaria".   The southern half consisted of the Tribes of Judah and Benjamin and was ruled over by Rehoboam, the son of Solomon.  It is referred to as "Judah", "Jerusalem", or "Zion".

The first three kings of Judah were Rehoboam, Abijah, and Asa.
In their time the Kings of Israel were: Jeroboam, Nadab, Baasha, Elah, Zimri, and Omri.

Of Judah - Southern Kingdom Rehoboam was the son of Solomon and Naama of Ammon.   He warred against Jeroboam of Israel. - In his time Judah was invaded by Shishak of Egypt. 
Abiajah (Abijam) defeated Jeroboam of Israel in battle. 
Asa defeated Zerach of Cush.  He was attacked by King Baasha of northern Israel.  Baasha had been allied with Aram (Syria) so Asa persuaded Aram to
change sides and attack Baasha.

Of Israel - Northern Kingdom
(The northern Ten Tribes who were to become "lost") Jeroboam, son of Nebat, of the Tribe of Ephraim set up two golden calves:  one in Bethel and the other in Dan.  His first center was Schechem ("Nablus") but he moved the capital to Tirzah east of the Jordan. 
Nadab son of Jeroboam.  He was assassinated and replaced by Baasha -one of his generals. 
Baasha came from the Tribe of Issachar.  He fought against Asa of Judah and Ben-Hadad of Aram.  ["Ben-Hadad" appears to have been the name of all members of one paricular dynasty that ruled over Aram (i.e. Syria)].
Ealah, son of Baasha, fought the Philistines.  He was killed by Zimri who attempted to take control in his stead. 
Zimri was killed and replaced by Omri. 
Omri spent the first 5 years of his reign in conflict with Tibni of Ginath who also claimed the throne.  Omri built the city of Samaria ("Shomron" in Hebrew).  [Samaria was also the name applied to the whole province around the city and in Prophecy the term is frequently used to represent the whole northern ten-tribed kingdom of "Israel"].  The daughter of Omri married Jehoshophat, the son of Asa of Judah
Ahab, the son of Omri, (brother-in-law of Jehosphat of Judah) married Jezebel daughter of the King of Sidon, the
leading Phoenician city at that time.  Omri lost the city of Ramoth Gilead and its territory in the north to Syria.  He defeated Moab and the Phillistines.

Source of Table:

Part Two

After Rehoboam, Abijah, and Asa:
The next kings of Judah were Jehoshaphat, Jehoram, and Ahaziah.   In their time the Kings of Israel were Ahab, Ahaziah, and Jehoram.  Note that the Kings of Judah and Israel had intermarried with each other, belonged to the same family and used the same names.
  Of Judah Jehoshophat, the son of Asa, was married to the daughter of Omri of Israel and was therefore brother-in-law to King Ahab.  He joined Ahab in a war against Syria.  Together with Ahaziah (the son of Ahab) he built a fleet in Ezion Geber (ca. Elath) to sail to Tarshish (Spain, Gaul, and Britain) on the Atlantic Ocean. The fleet was destroyed by a storm. He subdued the Edomites, Philistines, and Arabs.  Jehoshophat together with Joram (son of Ahab) of Israel and the King of Edom invaded Moab but they were forced to retreat. Judah under Jehoshophat was attacked by a combination of Edomites, Moabites, Ammonites, Philistines, etc.  All of these combined antagonistic forces, by miraculous intervention, quarreled amongst themselves and massacred each other. 
Joram, son of Jehoshophat was ruled by his wife, Athaliah, who was the daughter of Ahab of Israel, and Jezebel from Sidon. The Philistines and Arabs attacked Jerusalem and (as usual) did much harm.

Ahaziah was dominated by his mother Athaliah. He joined Jehoram (brother of Athalia) of Israel in attacking Syria and was killed by Jehu who led a revolt against Jehoram.
Of Israel Ahab married Jezebel of Sidon.  The cult of Baal and Astarte was promoted.  Canaanite practices were wide-spread.  The prophets Elijah and Elisha were active at this time.  Ahab married his daughter, Athaliah, to his nephew Joram of Judah, the son of King Jehoshophat.  Ahab and Jehoshopat went against Syria, and Ahab was killed. 
Ahaziah, the son of Ahab, lost control of Moab.  He died falling out of a window. 
Jehoram (Joram) succeeded his brother Ahaziah.  Jehoram of Israel together with Jehoshophat of Judah, and the King of Edom campaigned against Moab.  They were forced to retreat. Jehoram of Israel and Ahaziah (the son of Jehoshophat) of Judah campaigned against Syria over Ramath Gilead.  One of the military commanders of Israel named Jehu, led a revolt and killed both Jehoram and Ahaziah.
Jehu then was declared king over Israel.  Jehu also killed Jezebel the mother of Jehoram.

Map of Israel Under King Jeroboam-2. Actual Territorial Extent was Much Greater reaching into Southeast Turkey.
Source of Table:

Part Three

Of Judah:
The next three monarchs of Judah were Athaliah, Joash, and Amaziah.   During their reign the rulers of northern Israel were Jehu, Joash, Jehoash, and Jeroboam-ii.

Athaliah (widow of Joram [i.e. Jehoram] and mother of Ahaziah of Judah) killed all members of the House of David (including her own grandchildren) except Joash who was hidden and escaped.  She reigned for six years and was later killed by order of the High Priest Jehoiada who became regent during the infancy of Joash.
Joash: in his reign Judah was raided by Hazael King of Syria.  Joash repaired the Temple but later turned to idol worship and slew the Prophet Zechariah. 
Amaziah (son of Joash) was the brother of Amoz who was the father of Isaiah the Prophet.  Amaziah defeated Edom and attacked Joash of Israel and was defeated.  He was dethroned by a coup and fled to Lachish in the southwest where he held out for 15 years.  During this time his son, Uzziah (also known as Azariah), ruled over the rest of Judah.
Of Israel:
Jehu lost control of the territories east of the Jordan, i.e. the lands of Reuben, Gad, and the half-tribe of Menasseh.  They were conquered by Hazael, King of Aram. Archaeological evidence indicates that the Israelites in these regions were heavily influenced by Aramaic culture and language.  This is important in tracing the present-day descendants of these Israelite Tribes.
Joash: During his reign Northern Israel was oppressed by Aram (Syria) but was saved by his son Jehoash. 
Jehoash defeated Amaziah of Judah who had attacked him.
Jeroboam-ii conquered Moab and Syria.  He co-operated with Judah and gave northern Syria and southeast Turkey over to Judaean control.  In this region a colony of Judaeans (Yadi) was established or had been set up previously and was re-consolidated.  They adjoined a northern settlement from the Tribe of Dan.  Jeroboam-ii co-operated with the Phoenicians who consisted of Canaanites, Israelites, and others.

Part Four

The next three monarchs of Judah were Uzziah (Azariah), Jotham, and Ahaz. During their reign the rulers of northern Israel were Jeroboam-2, Zechariah, Shalum, Menahem, Pekahiah, and Pekah. 

Uzziah (Azariah) of Judah co-operated with Jeroboam-2 of Israel.  Jeroboam gave Uzziah control of Cilicia in southeast Turkey where a colony of Judaeans was established alongside a colony of Dan.  Dan and Judah were frequently together. Later in Denmark the Danes (from Dan) were accompanied by Jutes from Judah.  King Uzziah strengthened fortifications, developed and produced war-machines and military equipment.  He defeated the Philistines and Arabs. He encouraged agriculture and industry, irrigation works, and exports to Arabia and India.  He increased gold and silver. In the latter years of his reign he was stricken with leprosy and was considered as one "dead" while his son reigned in his stead.

Of Israel
In Israel Jeroboam-2 was followed by his son Zechariah who ruled in Samaria for six months before being assassinated and replaced by Shallum who reigned for a month.
Shallum was killed by Menachem who ruled for 10 years. 
Menachem paid tribute to Assyria. 
Menachem was followed by his son Pekahiah who ruled for two years. Pekahiah was killed by Pekah the son of Remalia.
In the days of Pekah Tiglathpileser exiled all the northern area of the kingdom of Israel: Ijon, Abel-beth-Maachah, Janoah, Kedesh, Hazor,
Gilead, Galilee, Naphtali. 
This was the overwhelming bulk of the northern kingdom.

Of Judah

In Judah:  After Uzziah, Jotham  of Judah built forts, strengthened defenses. He subdued the Ammonites.
Ahaz of Judah worshipped Moloch. Practices associated with Moloch such as jumping over fires etc. at the "Beltane" festival were practiced until recently in northern England, Scotland, and Sweden. This festival was called "Beltane" in Celtic which means "fire of Bel". "Bel" is a middle Eastern alternate pronunciation of Baal. Moloch was another form of the god "Baal". The Edomites revolted against Ahaz and took captives from Judah. The Philistines also conquered territories. Pekah of Israel and Rezin of Syria attacked Judah.  Many Jews were taken captive into Damascus. Damascus of the Bible was on the Euphrates and was not identical with Damascus of today which is further south. The captives of Judah that were taken to Damascus  apparently eventually merged with exiles from the Northern Kingdom. The Assyrians (under Sennacherib) were also later to attack Judah and take captives. One way and another a good portion of Judah actually went into Exile with the Ten Tribes and were mixed amongst them.  Even so, "Judah" in Biblical terms refers to those Jews who remained and kept their religion and whose identity is known. Those whose identity is unknown are counted together with the northern Israelites who are referred to separately. The future Messiah is to come from Judah meaning from amongst the present-day Jewish people.
Pekah of Israel slew 120,000 men in Judah and also took many captives which were later released. Rezin of Syria took Elath (in the extreme southeast, on the Gulf of Akaba) from Judah, expelled the inhabitants and replaced them with Syrians.  The Edomites also attacked Judah and took captives.
Ahaz was followed by Hezekiah as King of Judah.

The End of Israel and the Final Exile of the Ten Tribes
Pekah was followed by Hosea who was the last king of Israel.
At this stage only an area around the city of Samaria remained of the Northern Kingdom. After a siege of three years Samaria was taken by the Assyrians ands all its inhabitants exiled. The Kings of Assyria later settled pagans in the region of Samaria who became known as "Samaritans". The Samaritans adopted aspects of the Hebrew religion and absorbed a few remnants of those who remained of the Northern Israelites.

Hezekiah of Judah
Hezekiah purified the temple in the first year of his reign and in the sixth year the Northern Kingdom was exiled. In the 14th year of Hezekiah the Assyrian King Sennacherib captured all the unwalled cities of Judah and exiled their inhabitants. Sennacherib besieged Jerusalem but was temporarily diverted by an invasion of Tirhaka of Cush (translated as "Ethiopia"). Sennacherib returned to seige Jerusalem but 185,000 of his warriors were smitten dead by an angel of God. Sennacherib returned to Nineveh where he was assasinated by his sons who fled to Ararat (translated as "Armenia")..

To be Continued

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