Date: Tue Aug 27, 2002 2:58 am
1. Race in Medicine
2. Slavery Today
3. Query Request
4. Received my books
5. Magen David
7. New Books
1. Race in Medicine
NYTimes.com Article: Race Is Seen as Real Guide to Track Roots of Disease
Race Is Seen as Real Guide to Track
Roots of Disease
July 30, 2002
By NICHOLAS WADE
Challenging the widely held view that
race is a
"biologically meaningless" concept, a leading population
geneticist says that race is helpful for understanding
ethnic differences in disease and response to drugs.
The geneticist, Dr. Neil Risch of Stanford University, says
that genetic differences have arisen among people living on
different continents and that race, referring to
geographically based ancestry, is a valid way of
categorizing these differences.
Dr. Risch's position was prompted by an editorial last year
in The New England Journal of Medicine asserting that "
`race' is biologically meaningless," and one in Nature
Genetics warning of the "confusion and potential harmful
effects of using `race' as a variable in medical research."
Dr. Risch's assertion, in a paper in
the online journal
Genome Biology, comes as researchers and physicians are
trying to interpret the DNA data streaming from the Human
Genome Project and to make sense of the fact that the
pattern of data differs among ethnic groups.
All humans have the bulk of their genetic heritage in
common and possess the same set of genes. But because of
mutations, or changes in DNA, each gene comes in several
slightly different versions, and some of them are more
common in one ethnic group than another. These genetic
differences often have medical significance, since some
occur among genes that affect susceptibility to disease and
the response to drugs.
It has long been known that some diseases are not evenly
distributed. For example, a mutation that causes
hemochromatosis, a disorder of iron metabolism, is rare or
absent among Indians and Chinese but occurs in 7.5 percent
of Swedes. A common mutation that causes sickle cell anemia
is prevalent among Africans and is thought to have
originated among Bantu-speakers before the Bantu expansion
2,000 years ago.
Lactose intolerance, the loss of the ability to digest
lactose after weaning, is the default condition of
humankind but among Northern Europeans the ability is often
retained into adulthood. The reason is a mutation that may
have been favored among early cattle farmers.
The apparent correlation between race, genetic data and
disease has prompted at least two schools of thought among
biomedical researchers. One holds that race is so poorly
defined that it is not a reliable biological concept and
should be banished, if possible, from scientific
vocabulary. This is the view espoused by The New England
Journal of Medicine.
Many population geneticists, on the other hand, say it is
essential to take race and ethnicity into account to
understand each group's specific pattern of disease and to
ensure that everyone shares equally in the expected
benefits of genomic medicine.
Meanwhile a proposal for avoiding racial labels, at least
for drug trials, has recently been made by Dr. David
Goldstein, a population geneticist at University College,
London. He has suggested that patients be assigned to
different genetic groups by analyzing their DNA. The
process gives much the same result as asking people to
identify their ethnicity, but yields a more accurate
division in terms of how people respond to drugs, Dr.
Goldstein says. He adds that the expense of the genetic
testing will be affordable in drug trials.
In asserting that race is a valid concept for medical
research, Dr. Risch has plunged into an arena where many
fear to tread. He also takes issue with Dr. Goldstein's
race-sidestepping proposal, saying it will lead to
Race, as Dr. Risch describes it, has arisen because of the
numerous small genetic differences that have developed in
populations around the world. Many studies, Dr. Risch
writes, have shown that these differences cluster into five
major groups, which are simply the world's major
The ancestral human population would
have contained within
it many genetic differences and alternative gene forms
inherited from the predecessor species. This shared pool of
differences still accounts for 85 percent to 90 percent of
those seen in the global human population, according to
many measures. The differences between ethnic groups
account for the other 10 percent to 15 percent. This
well-known analysis, however, is based on commonly
occurring versions of genes, and rare versions of genes,
when measured, may show a greater tendency to be specific
to different populations, Dr. Risch said.
Dr. Risch believes that race, when self-defined by
continent of ancestry, is a true reflection of these
genetic differences, including those important for
understanding disease. "There is great validity in racial/
ethnic self-categorizations, both from the research and
public policy points of view," he says.
Editors of both the journals criticized by Dr. Risch
expressed respect for his views. Dr. Robert Schwartz, the
deputy editor of The New England Journal of Medicine and
the author of its editorial, said Dr. Risch's article was
"a serious piece of work and merits a lot of thought."
Dr. Bette Phimister, editor of Nature Genetics, said that
"Risch's point that there is a high and useful degree of
correlation between ethnicity/race and genetic structure,
is well taken, and one with which we agree."
Both editors also expressed support for the proposal
advanced by Dr. Goldstein, that of bypassing race by going
directly to the genetic markers in each patient that might
correlate with drug response or disease.
Dr. Goldstein, too, said he agreed with Dr. Risch that "the
geographic patterning of genetic variation is real and has
medical implications and one does need to take account of
"Neil is arguing against some people in the medical
community who say racial labels have nothing to do with
drug response, and he is right," he said.
But Dr. Goldstein says he believes the genetic variation
can be studied directly, without invoking race. In an
article last year in Nature Genetics, he and colleagues
analyzed genetic markers in people from eight ethnic
groups. When the people were regrouped according to their
genetic markers, that proved a better guide to drug
response than did their ethnic group, Dr. Goldstein
Scientists often hunt for genes in laboratory
mutating them with radiation or chemicals. No one would
think of inducing informative sets of mutations in people,
but nature has already performed the experiment by shaping
the human population into groups with differing
susceptibilities to disease. This genetic differentiation
among races is one that some gene hunters would like to
for full story see:
2. Slavery Today
Subject: Tallis on Sandall THE CULTURE CULT
In April last year, the Etireno , with
a cargo of slave children en
route from Benin to Gabon, briefly became the most infamous ship in
the world. Rumour had it that approximately 250 children, found to be
surplus to requirements, had been thrown overboard. When this could
not be substantiated, the world's press lost interest, thereby
missing the bigger and yet more terrible picture: the orphans of
the Etireno were only a small part of an estimated 200,000 children
sold annually into Africa's modern slave trade. The authorities in
Benin tried to explain the episode away as a West African custom in
which children are sent abroad to live as household servants with
wealthy relatives. Benin's Foreign Minister, Idji Kolawole,
remarked, "In our culture, we think that it's always good for a
child to go from his parents' house, to an uncle's or to a friend
Another incident, a few months later, gave the lie to this relaxed
attitude. The prolonged torture and death of Victoria Climbié, sent
to London to improve her life chances not to speak of widespread
evidence of sexual, physical and emotional abuse of other children
sent away to live as unprotected mendicants with wealthier families
leads one to question the use of "always" in the Foreign Minister'
s statement. His other phrase, "in our culture", was striking too.
Here and elsewhere these seemingly unexceptionable words have a
strong intent: they are intended to immunize the practice being
discussed against criticism.
for full story see:
3. Query Request
Quite a whille ago I quoted ancient sources to the effect that the Romans
sold Jews as slaves into Egypt.
If anybody still has the source please send it to me.
4. Received my books
Hi Yair I received my books I ordered
thank you. I'm very excited to read
them. This weekend my wife, I and our dog closed our business for Friday
and we are going up north to Lake Huron camping. I am going to start
reading Lost Israelite Identity. Again thank you so much for all your
research you are really doing a great service to the world and I know your
message of Brit-Am is going to explode soon and will reach the four corners
of the world where the Lost Israelis are located. I personally once I have
educated myself and have a strong grasp of scripture on the various
subjects concerning the LTI's will be strongly pursuing our common goal of
reunification of Israel in anyway possible. That is how passionate I feel
on the subject of the Lost Tribes of Israel.
5. Magen David
Question: Is the Magen David pagan?
Answer: We have spoken on this matter several times in the past.
To my mind something should be considered "pagan" unless it is clearly
recognizable as pagan, has a definite pagan origin, and has no other
significance attached to it. According to this the magen david is not pagan.
No-one seems to be sure what the origin of the Star of David is.
In Hebrew it is called "Magen David" meaning "Shield of David" and may not
represent a star at all.
It is a common geometric symbol found in many cultures and could be
ascribed significance by different groups for all kinds of reasons but this
in itself should not necessary disqualify it.
The northern kingdom used a kind of rosette as a symbol of royalty and so
did other ancient cultures in the area.
The magen david could have developed from this.
OR in ancient Hebrew the name DAVID could CONCEIVABLY (but we have no
proof) have been represented by two "D" letters (dalet) whose sign was a
triangle that usually pointed to the left but could be pointed in any
direction. The magen david is two
triangles superimposed on each other. It therefore could be understod as an
ideogram for DAVID the king of Judah and Israel.
Other explanations say that
David El Roi a Jewish leader in Kurdistan adopted it as his symbol and it
spread from there to other Jewish communities.
The Christians in the Middle Ages forced the Jews to wear the symbol to
distinguish them from their Gentile neighbors
and the Jews later adopted it as "Jewish".
We suggested in "The Tribes" that the magen david represented the order and
formation of the 12 tribes of Israel around the Tabernacle and this
suggestion fits the description given (in Numbers) quite well.
I have begun reading up a bit concerning the history of our "Identity" belief.
A few points worth noting are:
*The belief apparently existed amongst Celtic and "Germanic"-speaking
peoples (such as the Goths) outside of Germany.
In its modern form it began in Britain as British Israel. There was always
an anti-semitic potential there but it was not serious at first.
*Most of the early leading thinkers and advocates were sympathetic towards
the Jews. Some of them were amongst the earliest advocates of a Jewish
State supported by Britain.
*Some of the people who believed in this idea were very important and did
help the Jews.
*Anti-semitic notions did creep in later and have now become accepted
amongst British Israel in England and Australia but not necessarily
elsewhere. Some elements in British Israel in England are still positively
disposed towards us. British Israel in Ulster on the whole has been
supportive in the past and we have friends there, in Canada they are also
In the USA the belief was adopted by
two main streams:
i. A fundamentalist element mainly that existed from the beginning and was
later lead by followers of W.G. Armstrong and offshoots of his group.
Mainly very positive people, very important contributions in research and
propagation of the idea, some very god publications. On the whole
pro-Jewish and pro-Israel.
ii. so called "Chrisitain Identity"
who in effect are Nazis, do great
damage, receive a lot of publicity. Consist of perverts,
anti-semites, pagans, and in general are servants of evil. They are the
enemy of the Hebrew peoples.
They are conscious or unconscious agents of those working against people of
7. new books:
we are working on new books and upgrading already published ones.
We hope to complete shortly:
a. A book mainly on Genesis, Numbers, and Deuteronomy emphasizing proofs of
b. a book on Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Ezekiel and evidence of identity.
c. A book on Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habbakuk,
Zephaniah, Haggai, Zeccariah, and Malachi.
The books are based on our regular Biblical series that we have been
posting to the web with the emphasis on proofs of Israelite origin.
In the books now in preparation, we have included a lot of new material
derived from sources that hitherto have not been made public.
One of the books is almost ready and another is at an advanced stage.
We need financial support to continue Brit-Am work in general and work on
the books and to publish the books
shortly. Brit-Am is under financial pressure. We hope that by publishing
the books we may generate income to continue
Brit-Am work. We ALSO wish to make public information that should be in
the public domain and DOES serve as PROOF
concerning the Hebrew origins of many people in America and the west today.
The works are interesting and read well. Please support us if you can.