Relevance to Brit-Am:
Immigrants from Puerto Rica are now an important ethnic group in the USA.
According to reports they have both negative and positive qualities.
The article below is of interest.
Salient features include: They overwhelmingly (98%) regard themselves as
"Hispanic" and "white" (80%).
Their Native American ancestry is estimated as ca.15% but 61% in the matrilinear
History Shaped the Geographic Distribution of Genomic Admixture on the Island of
Contemporary genetic variation among Latin Americans human groups reflects
population migrations shaped by complex historical, social and economic factors.
Consequently, admixture patterns may vary by geographic regions ranging from
countries to neighborhoods. ...Socioeconomic status (SES) data and geographic
location were obtained for each individual. There was significant geographic
variation of ancestry across the island. In particular, African ancestry
demonstrated a decreasing East to West gradient that was partially explained by
historical factors linked to the colonial sugar plantation system. SES also
demonstrated a parallel decreasing cline from East to West. However, at a local
level, SES and African ancestry were negatively correlated. European ancestry
was strongly negatively correlated with African ancestry and therefore showed
patterns complementary to African ancestry. By contrast, Native American
ancestry showed little variation across the island and across individuals and
appears to have played little social role historically.
Puerto Rico is an ideal venue to understand the impact of historical and social
factors on modern genetic patterns. The island has a higher degree of tri-hybrid
admixture than most countries in Latin America . The number of indigenous
Ta'os living in Puerto Rico at the moment of the first contact with Europeans
has been estimated at 110,000 . From that moment, Spanish settlers, mostly
single men, began mating with Ta'o women. Through war, slavery and disease, the
Ta'o population was drastically reduced. Consequently, African slaves were
introduced as a source of labor. Like most of the Caribbean, the colonial
economy in Puerto Rico was largely based on the sugar trade to Europe and other
markets, and slave plantations were concentrated in the important
sugar-producing areas. In turn, manufactured products from these areas were used
to purchase new slaves in different parts of Africa and in other American
colonies , . Today, almost all modern Puerto Ricans are admixed
descendents of the three ancestral populations (Ta'os, Europeans, and Africans).
However, current social perceptions and administrative classifications fail to
capture this complexity: in the 2000 U.S. census only 4.2% of Puerto Ricans
self-identified as 'two or more races', and 95.8% self-categorized into a single
'race', including 'white' (80.5%), 'black or African American' (8.0%), 'some
other race' (6.8%) and 'American Indian or Alaskan Native' (0.4%) . 98.8%
considered themselves Hispanic or Latino.
Variation in ancestry within a population has social implications and has often
been the basis for discrimination and socioeconomic differences across Latin
America . Dominance by European descendents has been inherited from colonial
times, resulting in lower wages and less education for people with African or
Native American appearance , , . These social differences also
impact health and disease risk. In Puerto Rico, we have described complex
interactions between social factors, genetic ancestry and risk for disease .
Genetic ancestry confers opposite risks for asthma among Puerto Ricans in low
versus high socioeconomic groups. The relative importance of genetic ancestry
and social factors in health and disease is still controversial, and likely
involves interactions between both elements , . Thus, the examination of
the interaction between genetic ancestry and social factors is imperative.
...Average ancestry values for the Puerto Rican population were 15.2% ('7.2),
21.2% ('14.4), and 63.7% ('15.2) for the Native American, African, and European
contributions, respectively (Table 1). As previously shown for other Latin
American populations, extensive variation among individuals was observed (Figure
1B) especially in the European and African components. Overall, these ancestral
components showed greater variances than the Native American component.
With the exception of a gold rush in the first decades of colonization, the
economy of Puerto Rico primarily consisted of large-scale sugar production in a
process similar to most of the Caribbean islands at that time , . This
triggered the importation of African slaves and their descendents continued in
the industry after the abolition of slavery in 1873. Thus, the location of sugar
mills and sugar production variables explain a substantial proportion of the
differences in African ancestry observed in present day Puerto Rico. These
factors also result in an East to West gradient in the proportion of African
ancestry that has been previously described for mtDNA information .
Sugarcane plantations were mostly located in coastal lowlands, which may explain
why African ancestry decreases with distance from the coast.
The Spanish colony that imported Africans as forced labor also established a
social structure to preserve the status quo of a European-descent ruling class.
The African and African-admixed classes were kept in a subservient position,
whether slave or free, and social class endogamy was enforced by formal laws
that prevented 'unequal' marriages . Effects of this social stratification
have led to a genetic and social structure, which continues to exist in current
generations of Puerto Ricans. Recently, we detected assortative mating based on
African/European ancestry among Puerto Ricans living in the island and in the
mainland U.S. . Here, we demonstrated that African ancestry is associated
with lower SES, reinforcing the evidence that social perception influences not
only social interactions and mating choice but also social position and class
within society , . In addition, socioeconomic status is independently
influenced by geography, with differences between and within regions in a
pattern that is actually similar to the African ancestry cline.
...The fact that average Native American ancestry among Puerto Ricans is not
much less than average African ancestry yet shows a much smaller variance among
individuals reinforces the far more significant social role of African ancestry
compared to Native American ancestry in this population. In contrast, in other
Latin American countries Native American ancestry plays a key role in all these
social processes , .
Another important observation is the sex-biased admixture in Puerto Rico. In a
previous article using this same census-based sample, we reported that mtDNA
lineages were 61.3% Native American, 27.2% African, and 11.5% European .
This distribution demonstrates an excess of ancestry contribution from European
males and Native American females. This is a common feature in the ancestral
gene pool of Latin American populations , . Interestingly we did not
observe a substantial bias for the African ancestry.
2. New DNA Survey in Sweden
From: Orjan Svensson <email@example.com>
Subject: Swedish Population Substructure Revealed by Genome-Wide Single
Nucleotide Polymorphism Data
Shalom, Some quotes from a new article at
"The Swedes - especially southern Swedes - were genetically close to the Germans
and British, while their genetic distance to Finns was substantially longer. The
overall structure within Sweden appeared clinal, and the substructure in the
southern and middle parts was subtle. In contrast, the northern part of Sweden,
Norrland, exhibited pronounced genetic differences both within the area and
relative to the rest of the country. These distinctive genetic features of
Norrland probably result mainly from isolation by distance and genetic drift
caused by low population density. " "Studies of ancient DNA have shown a genetic
discontinuity between the Neolithic inhabitants of the southern part of Sweden
(ca. 3000 BC) and the current Swedish population" Regards, Orjan
(b) Swedish genes similar
to Brits and Danes: study
Swedes have a similar genetic make up to the Danes and the British, although
variations between those living in the south and the north of the country are
greater than once thought, a new study shows.
An extensive genetic survey of researchers in Sweden and Finland shows clear
variations between different parts of the country and indicates that Swedes
are closer to Brits and Danes genetically than to Finland.
The significant differences between Swedes and neighbouring Finns has
surprised researchers, as Finland and Sweden were united for several hundred
"It is both strange and interesting that the genes are so linked to language.
It may be that if we speak different languages, you are less likely to jump
into bed with one another," said Per Hall, Professor at Karolinska Institute,
and one of the researchers behind the study.
He believes that the results may have important medical implications as
genetic differences, such as those between populations in northern and
southern Sweden, can often explain the prevalence of certain diseases.
"Stomach cancer is for example very common in the north. It may be due to
genetic factors, because lifestyle differences in Sweden are not really very
significant," Hall said.
The study compared the genetic make up of a total of 1500 persons of Swedish
origin, with just over 3000 people from other European countries.
3. DNA and Brit-Am Simplified.
A certain organization is offering an Israelite Tribes DNA testing.
What in simple non-technical terms is the situation regarding DNA and Brit-Am
In very simplified terms:
For female (mtDNA) it is now agreed that environment determines the haplotype
(i.e. DNA type).
Apart from that Jewish and European female DNA is more or less the same.
Jewish mtDNA types exist but only as subsets amongst major types prevalent in
For male (Y)DNA it is NOT agreed that environment plays an influence.
Brit-Am however believes that ultimately it will be seen that male DNA is also
determined by environment.
Despite this it is also clear that both male and female DNA is transmitted by
The questions that will remain involve the relative rate of DNA change
determined by environment versus inherited transmission.
By analogy I might have blue eyes because a brown eyed ancestor lived in a cold
cloud covered area and somehow or other
this caused his offspring to be blue-eyed wonders. From then on all their
descendants had blue-eyes.
If you want to use blue-eyes to trace relationships you can go back all the way
to the brown-eyed ancestor whose sperm
made the switch. But how far back is that?
This makes it sound too simplified. In fact some kind of computation may be
Present-day DNA findings as conventionally understood DO NOT necessarily
contradict Brit-Am findings even though we disagree with them.
People claiming to show Israelite Tribes through DNA are not serious BUT if they
nevertheless do make valid DNA tests then the results can be used in some cases
to help show possible relationships with Jews and/or with other Israelite
[ For instance, One of the sons of Yair Davidiy did a DNA test and the results
make us part of the Neil clan in Northwest Ireland and Lowland Scotland.
Additional information obtained after that suggests that this possibility may
have something to it.]
So too, if you do a DNA test you may have useful results of interest BUT on the
other hand, you might not.
It could be that the results will not tell you much.
Returning to the results for the son of Yair Davidiy as an example:
We are prepared to accept that our ancestors came from Northwest Ireland. The
question is, Did everyone in Northwest Ireland with that DNA marker have the
same ancestor or was there some kind of environmental influence that affected
people of otherwise different origins in that area?
Assuming that we all came from the one ancestor this makes us part of the R1b
Was R1b the original haplogroup for all peoples of the world as we claim or did
it evolve as the experts say?
Was the ADAM of DNA West European?
Were R1 and N The Forefathers?
Does this make us Israelites or non-Israelites?
DNA findings taking them at their face value would suggest:
The Japanese are closer to African Negroes than they are to Chinamen!
The Irish and most British are closer to Amerindians and Chinamen than they are
to Scandinavians and Italians.
The white Berbers and many southern Europeans (e.g. many Greeks, many Jews, etc)
are closer to Africans
than they are to their own neighbors and Italians!
DNA findings as they are without further clarification may be accepted only with
Neither can they be rejected altogether.
Brit-Am does not hide anything. Our policy is to accept all research findings
and deal with them at face value even if we feel they are mistaken.
This policy has enabled us on several occasions to achieve important research
Three main types of DNA testing exist.
yDNA shows the male ancestors all the way back.
mtDNA were assumed to show the maternal lineages but now are proven to be
determined by environment.
autosomal DNA in principal reflects something of the whole mixing of the past
no matter where it comes from e.g. mother, father, mother of grandfather, etc.
The Lost Ten Tribes and DNA
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