Tribal Identifications: Gad
See also:

Gad in the British Isles: recently posts to "Brit-Am Now" have advanced proofs  placing Gad in Scotland and Ireland:e.g.  "Brit-Am Now" 265  item 4. Stephen Coneglan: Scotland is Gad: Steven Coneglan said that:

<<Scripture shows the people of Gad to be a warrior tribe particularly adept at highland combat (1 Chronicles 12: 8). The epithet 'having faces like lions' seems quite well suited to the Highlanders of Scotland...Gad is associated with the Mazzaroth sign of Aries, and the attributes of this sign are warlike.
...Gad kept sheep. They, along with Reuben, were the only tribes that took to their father's pastoral profession... The Scottish have always been renowned sheepkeepers. Indeed, many of them travelled half-way around the world to settle in the South Island of my country, New Zealand, to continue raising sheep in the Otago Ranges. Gad and Reuben are the quintessential sheepkeepers of Scripture, and New Zealand is the quintessential sheepkeeping nation in the world (about 20 sheep to every person!).
The name Gad is, according to Strong's Concordance and Lexicon, pronounced 'gawd'....Gord is so Scottish that the name alone acts as the chief waymark of identification.
There is another fact that brings the matter to the point of being beyond reasonable doubt. Check out Israel's landmark blessing of Gad at Genesis 49: 19. The sense of this blessing is easy to make out. Gad will first be attacked, but he will strike back. Or, if you attack me, I will strike back.
Compare this now with the Scottish motto: 'Nemo me impune lacessit', meaning 'no one attacks me with impunity', or, if you attack me, I will strike back. The motto clinches it for me, although the other evidences are more than sufficient.....
Regards. Stephen Coneglan
[Steven cited additional evidence concerning the Tribal stone and colors but this evidence is not based on the general consensus concerning their applications]

Gad in the British Isles

The article below speaks of Gad in general. We located Gad chiefly in Sweden but offshoots were also present in the British Isles and elsewhere: Concerning the British Isles we had the Getae (of Gad)  recorded as amongst the Anglo-Saxon invaders of Britain, theGadeni around Edinburgh in Scotland, the Gaedhal in ancient Scotland and Ireland, the Geddingas amongst the Anglo-Saxons;the Cauci (from Chaggi) in Ireland; the Hastings who were Vandal group amongst the Angles who invaded England and Scotland; We had Gad in Sweden and Swedish rulers in parts of England, and the Scottish being sometimes referred to as 'Ysgoths" which name could mean "Goths of the Isles".  Also a small enclave of Goths on the shores of the Black sea were equated with the Scottish.A few more details are given below. On the whole our understanding is that elements of all Israelite Tribes were to be found in the British Isles that nevertheless were dominated by the Tribes of Joseph. Eventually Ephraim was to be predominant in Britain and Manasseh in the USA.

Note the following article is Extracted from "The Tribes":  The article could use some editing but the information is there and is both important and interesting and could be greatly expanded upon.  I have since received additional informationthat adds to and enhances what is written below but will not substantially change it.



The Tribe of Gad was exiled with Reuben and the half-tribe of Menasseh to Halah, Habor, the River of Gozan, and to Hara (1-Chronicles 5;26). Gad re-appeared as the Guti who were allied to the Saka and Gimiri (Cimiri) in Mesopotamia and the Zagros Mountain region. From this area the Guti split into known groups. One group went west to become the Geti of the Balkans. Ancient writers who lived at the time recognized that the Geti and the Goths were the same people. Another group of Goths was in the east, branching out from Hara in Eastern Iran. In the sphere surrounding the area of Harathe Gadites reappeared as the Pasar-Gadae, in the name Gadrosia, in the Gadanopydres of Carmania; and in the Gu-te (Goths) whose name is sometimes mistakenly transliterated from Chinese records as Yuehchi1.  The Gu-te were known to the Western World as Massagetae. The Romans knew that the Massagetae were Goths though the term could also be applied to other peoples of the area.  The name Goth itself means GAD and is another way of enunciating it in Hebrew while the Goths actually in some cases referred to themselves by the term "Gad"   or something close to it such as "God" or "Godo" or GUDA. GADis recognized as a root occurring in Gothic toponomy ; i.e. the root "GAD" in a place-name is accepted by historians as evidence indicating that that place was probably once connected with the Goths. Gadites were also known in Scotland (as Gadeni) and Ireland as the Gaedhals.


             Goths were to be found amongst the sundry northern tribes who invaded England with the Anglo-Saxons and a Saxon group was known as the GEDDINGAS.
             The main body of Gad was that associated with the Goths and with the so-called Nordic peoples. Goths were to settle in many lands but numerically they probably remained concentrated in Scandinavia and Sweden (Gotaland and Gothia) is the only place where today they can be distinguished as a specific people.

             The sons of Gad (Genesis 46, Numbers 26) were Ziphion (Hebrew: Tsifion: ), Haggi (Chaggi), Shuni , Ezbon (Etsbon), Eri (Geri), Arodi and Areli . Ziphion (Tsiphion) is recalled in the Thaifalli who were close allies of the Goths. From the east they came westward with the Hun invasion and apparently settled in France6. The name of the second son, Haggi is close to that of Huga7 which name was applied to the Franks in the north.
The Franks consisted mainly of clans from Reuben with supplements from others, especially Menasseh. Nevertheless, the two tribes, Gad and Reuben, had been together on the other side of the Jordan and were also exiled together so that groups from one were to be found in the domain of the other. In an area associated with the Goths in eastern Scythia. Ptolemy's Map of central Scythia has a people north of the Jaxartes River named CACHAGE Scythae and this name too derives from Hagi or Chagi.¨ Likewise, Chagi is found in the CHAUKI (Hocings)8 who were a Frisian nation whose lands were overtaken in about 200 CE by Saxons coming west from Holstein. The Chauci were obliged to leave their lands and become amalgamated mainly with the Franks9 though some were absorbed by the Saxons10. Tacitus11 describes the Chauci as the noblest of German tribes, So constituted as to prefer to protect their vast domain by justice alone...yet they are ready with arms, and if circumstances should require with armies, men, and horses in abundance.There was also a people named Cauci in Celtic Ireland who were related to the Chauci on the Continent. The Batavia who settled in Holland were regarded as part of the Chauci. They form a contingent from Gad amongst the Dutch population. Pliny included the Chauci in the Ingueone group of German tribes together with the Cimbri and Teutoni. The Ingueones relate to Yngvi12. In mythology, Yngvi (of the Ingueone group) was a son of the god Odin and an ancestor of the Swedish kings whose dynasty was known as the Yinglings13. This association connects the Ingueones (Chauci, Teutons, and Cimbri) with the Swedes. The Cimbri were located by Ptolemy in Jutland where their name is recalled in the modern places of Himmerland and Himmersyssel14. [The sounds k, c, ch, and h, interchange in studies of that era, thus Cimmeror Kimmer becomes Himmer]. The name also occurs in Uppland Himbran (Uppsala in Sweden), Hymber in south Norway, and Himbrin and Himmerstein in Trondheim, also Norway. There is also Krimisham in Sweden as well as quite a few place-names containing the root-word "hammer" indicating a possible Cimbrian association. Simon Grunau15 (ca.1530) wrote that the Swedish Isle of Gothland was formerly known as Cymbria and that Goths had resettled it, in about 500 BCE, after being forced out of Italy which they had previously invaded. He also said that the name Bruthenia was given once to Northern Prussia as a result of Gothic settlement. Brutheniais probably a version of Britha name that means covenant and that accompanied the Cimmerians to Britain. The Cimbrians were traditionally descended from the Cimmerians (Gimiri) of old. The triumvirate of Saka, Gimiri, and Guti (Goths) had been known since the Assyrian era.  In some respects this threesome overlapped the two-and-a-half-Tribes who had settled east of the Jordan, i.e. the Cimmerians partly from Carmi of Reuben, the Amyrgio-Sakae from Machir of half-Menasseh and the Guti from Gad.

             The ancient Guti were paralleled in Scandinavia by the Geats or Goths.  The name GUTI  itself in Scandinavia was used synonymously with Goth16. The Gimiri (Cimmri) became the Cimbri who descended from them and who were spread throughout Scandinavia with a historical connection with Denmark. The Cimbri were close allies of the Teutons. Ptolemy located the Teutons south of the Saxones and north of the (Aggiloi) Anglii. The Teutons were tobe swept up in the Anglo-Saxon invasion of Britain. The name Teuton is cognate with Teutarus  who according to legend was a Scythian and taught Hercules archery. The term TEUTON  is connected to that of Tahan, son of Ephraim, son of Joseph. A similar form TAHAT(cf. Numbers 26; 35, and 1-Chronicles 7; 20) was also known amongst the Tribe of Ephraim. Tahan and Tahat are considered to be related bodies17. The Saxons represent the SAKAE of old meaning the Scyths.

             The sons of Gad were Ziphion and Haggi as well as Shuni, Ezbon, Eri, and Arodi, and Areli (Genesis 46;16). Haggi (Chaggi) and Eri (Geri) were represented in tribes of East Scythia who in the west became associated with the Goths and Suebians. Serica in Eastern Siberia was once the domain of the Eastern Suebi. This was prior to a drastic climatic change in that region. Also in Serica there dwelt a number of other groups who later reappeared in the west and who were of Israelite descent. One of these were the GARINAEI18, descendants of ERI (pronounceable as Geri) who reappeared as the GRANI of Sweden who were noticed by Jordanes19. The Greuthingi [also from Erii.e. Geri] were a section of the Goths who intermingled with the Ostrogoths on the Black Sea coast. They are the same people as the GREOTINGI whom Jordanes20 reported as being in Sweden. The Goths were traditionally considered to have come from Sweden. Modern research tends to the view that the initial base of the Goths was in Northern Poland but elite groups from Scandinavia settled amongst them and culturally influenced them.


             The Gadeni of Scotland may have been derived from Gad. [Alternately they may have been connected to Benjamin, cf.Numbers 1:11] OF BENJAMIN; ABIDAN THE SON OF GIDEONI. ]
  The Goths had some type of connection with Scotland and some English authors named them Ysgoths, this name could connote "Goths of the Island". Certain archaeologists believe that finds from the ship Sutton Hoo indicate the presence of a Gothic element amongst the Anglo-Saxons. In 1404 Archbishop Johannes de Gabonifontibus (who had been in England) reported: Two small nations are living along and around the Black Sea; the Thats and a few Goths. The Goths claim to have descended from the Scots and speak like the English22.  The Thats were a branch of the original Teutons. The Teutons had been in Northern Germany and Denmark and were absorbed by the Anglo-Saxons. A section of the Thats by the Black Sea shores of Southern Russia practiced Judaism and are known as The Mountain Jews [Most of whom have since moved to Israel].

And the sons of Gad; Ziphion, and Haggi, Shuni, and Ezbon, Eri, and Arodi, and Areli (Genesis 46; 16).

The children of Gad after their families; of Zephon, the family of the Zephoni: of Haggi, the family of the Haggi: of Shuni, the family of the Shuni:

Of Ozni, the family of the Ozni: of Eri, the family of the Eri:

Of Arod, the family of the Arodi: of Areli, the family of the Areli.

These are the families of the children of Gad according to those that were numbered of them, forty thousand and five hundred  Numbers 26; 15-18).



             The DANS (DAN) who finally settled in Denmark formerly sojourned in Sweden23  within which land the Tribe of Gad predominated. Sweden was formed when the kingdom of the Swedish-Goths (Gautland) united with that of the Svea24. The Svea were known to the Latins as Suiones. Tacitus mentions, (Germania 44) The states of the SUIONES right out in the sea. They are powerful not only in arms and men but also in fleets. SUIONES(Svea) is similar to THE Hebrew Shuni the third son, whose name in Biblical times in the north was perhaps pronounceable as SUONI [Sfor SHcf. Judges 12;6  Siboleth instead of Shiboleth; and "u" or "wu" before "o"].

             The union of Gad and Dan, who in Biblical times were close neighbors, was repeated in the Gauti and Dauni that, says Ptolemy, were on the Baltic coast.

             The Goths were to dominate the region of Scythia, north of the Black Sea, and here river names, such as Don, Danaper (Dnieper), Danaster, and Danube, all bear witness to the presence of Dan. Strabo25 says expressly that the DANUBE was known to have received its name from the Scyths¨ . The Aorsi (from north of the Caucasus) were neighboured by the UDINI26 whose name is said to mean The DONS.  Amongst Scythian (and Gothic) clans the name DAN or compounds of it is considered typical27.


             The Arodi and Areli of Gad were also once linked with Denmark of Dan. Denmark of the Danes was for a time ruled by the Hread-Goths or Hrodgoths28 who were either the same as, or at least related to, the HARUDI (Hardi).  The Harudi from Denmark migrated to Hordaland29 in Norway in the 200s and 300s CE. Also once in Denmark were the ERULI (Harules) who were expelled somewhere between 100-500 CE30 and wandered extensively before finally returning to Scandinavia where some may have received part of their former patrimony in Denmark back while others (possibly the bulk) settled in Swedenê. The Herules are famous as a fierce, energetic, and knowledgeable people31. More than any other group they are considered to have been masters of the semi-secret Runic script. Runes in the early stages were especially associated with Gothic civilization that was reasonably cultured despite hostile and primitive surroundings. RUNIC letters originated in the Middle East and are derived mostly from the ancient HEBREW scriptY. Both the Harudi and Eruli (Harules) are related to sons of Gad, Harudi from the Arodi of Gad, and Eruli from Areli (Numbers 26; 17).

             From the above it is apparent that the sons of Gad were represented in tribal groups which were part of, or somehow associated with, the Gothic nation. Most of these groups had representative settlers in Sweden: Ziphion was found in the Thaifali, who were Gothic-allies; Haggi appears in the Chauci and amongst the Hugi Franks and the Hocings of England, and the Yinglings of Sweden; Eri (Geri)u was represented by the Grani and Greotingi of Sweden and the Goths; Shuni (Suoni) by the Suiones of Sweden; Arodi by the Hreadgoths and Harudi; and Areli by the Eruli or Herules. The only son not accounted for so far is Ezbon (Etsbon) (Genesis 46;16) Etsbon of Gad fathered the Hasdingas32 who were a branch of the Vandals, marched together with the Goths33 and shared the same dialect and customs. A branch of the Hasdingas participated in the Anglo-Saxon invasions of Britain where they were known as the Hastings34.

Ezbon was also called Ozni (Numbers 26;16). His name is found in that of Osnabruch which is in West Germany but was once Frankish territory. The name Etsbon is recognizable in the Bastarnae and Hasdingas. The Bastarnae seem to have disappeared somewhere in France. The Bastarnae had been first reported as allied to the Goths and were referred to as GALATIANS. The appellation Galatian comes from the Hebrew Galaadi (i.e. Gilead) which was the name of a grandson of Menasseh whose territory in the Land of Israel had intermerged with the territory of Gad. In another sense GILEAD and Bashanwere names applied to the COMBINED territories east of the Jordan of half-Menasseh, Reuben, and GAD:


The Huguenots from Hugo or Haggi of Gad

             The Huguenots are identified as the Calvinist Protestants of France though they probably existed before Calvin. Ruth Shecter, an author and researcher at the Beer Sheva University in Israel says that the Calvinists were basically Hebraic in character and mind-set especially when compared to neighboring peoples and religious groups.  The Huguenots were persecuted and many of them fled to other lands. The name Huguenotis derived from that of a legendary king named Hugon or HUGO. The 11th edition of the Encyclopedia Brittanica quotes from Henri Estienne (1566) who said that the Protestants at Tours used to assemble at night near the gate of King Hugo whom the people regarded as a spirit. A monk in a sermon said that the Protestants should be called Huguenots since like the spirit-king Hugo they only went out at night. They were therefore called Huguenots and the name became popular from 1560 onwards. HUGO WAS INDEED THE SOURCE OF THE NAME! Hugo is another form of the name Haggi son of Gad. The chief concentrations of Huguenots today in France are in Vendee in the west (once known as Pictavia), in the region of Paris, and in regions situated along the course of the Rhone River in the southeast. In the past Strasbourg in the east was once important. As mentioned the Huguenots were persecuted and suffered from massacres and expulsions. After 1685 about 400,000 Huguenots emigrated to Prussia, Holland, Britain, Switzerland, and North America. Among the Boer (Dutch-dominated) settlers of South Africa there were many of Huguenot origin.

             The legend of King HUGO was known from the southeast area of France. The Huguenots displayed strong Israelite characteristics, appear to have been mainly of one ethnic cast, and came from areas in France where the Goths of Gad had once been present: The southeast of France was once called "Gothia"  due to the Goths having ruled and settled there.  Amongst the Goths in Gothia there were movements to Judaize. The Goths themselves believed that they were descended from Israel. Jews from the region of Gothia were also called Goth and the terms Jew and Gothwere used synonymously! The historian Arhur J. Zuckerman believed that Jews were referred to as Goths because they often came from the region of Narbonne which was also known as Gothia.  One opinion holds that many of the Goths in Southeast France and Spain at some early stage converted to Judaism! A few Jewish Marranos became Hugeonots. The Hugeonots on the whole were a very positive and valuable element in French society. During the Second World War the Hugeonots of France and the Calvinists of Holland probably more than any other group risked their lives to save Jews from extermination by the Germans.

             Many Hugeonots went to Berlin in the State of Prussia in Mecklenburg. This region had once been a Gothic center and from there many migrated to the USA. Between 1850 and 1890 approximately 146,000 (one out of every three) Mecklenburgers emigrated overseas, most going to the United States of America. The reason for leaving was dissatisfaction with the prevailing social order and conditions. The emigrants represented the remnants of the Goths of Israelite origin who were finally separating themselves out from their non-Israelite brethren. The same principle applies to the rest of Europe. In all seven million people left Germany alone.  Some few people of Israelite origin may have remained and it is reported that in Berlin more Jews were given shelter than any other German city. Nevertheless the overwhelming majority of Hebrew ancestry had left the country.

Gad in Finland
Many inhabitants of Finland are descended from Swedish settlers who adopted the Finnish language.  We identify these settlers as belonging to Gad whereas  Finland on the whole is dominated by the Tribe of Issachar.

             Jacob (Israel) the patriarch prophesied of Gad, A troop overcame him: but he shall overcome at the last(Genesis 49;19). This Prophecy was perhaps exemplified when the Huns' hordes overcame the Goths and forced them to participate in the western invasions. On Attila's death a revolt by the Goths and their Gepid kin destroyed the Hun domination. The great commentator Don Isaac Abarbanel (on Genesis 49;19), after analyzing and weighing all the Biblical verses referring to Gad, came to (the inferred) conclusion that Gad would be numerous and divided into many groups which, nevertheless, would maintain some form of contact and be capable of concerted action. Historically, this concept did fit the Gothic peoples, though it is difficult to see what applicability it could possibly have today. According to the Zohar35 the animal-symbol of the Tribe of Gad was the kid of a sheep or goat. This was based on the word for KID, GADI, which is similar to Gad. Similarly the Goths of history are said to have had a GOAT as their symbolic-animal38. The name GAD in Biblical Hebrew is also connected to the word for cutting and chopping as well as for groups or legions and also for deity (god)39 .  The Goths of history interpreted their name to mean People (Chosen) of God37. Popular traditions (such as that related by John Mandeville, 1499) identified the GOTHS of history with the LOST TEN TRIBES OF ISRAEL.

             Midrashic opinion holds that the tribes over the Jordan which included Gad, Reuben, and half Menasseh, were the first to be exiled and that they like the other tribes will be redeemed in the future.

             Historically, Goths and Gothic clans and sub-tribes were shown as having been present in both the Scythian areas and in Scandinavia. From Scythia they disappeared but their descendants, as a recognizable entity, remain in Scandinavia. The migratory connection between Scythia and Scandinavia is reflected in the Mythology of Odin that relates how people from the Don River area in southern Russia migrated to Scandinavia.

             The Tribe of Reuben had neighbored GAD and was exiled with it. Consequently, a certain overlapping may be noticed between groups identified as part of Gad and those seen to have come from Reuben. REUBEN appears to have been the dominating factor in the FRANK federations of West European history. Apart from Scandinavia, the second most important area of GOTHIC settlement was in southern France (Septimania) in the region surrounding the city of Narbonne, which province was known as GOTHIA, and here too, the FRANKS (of Reuben) adjoined the Goths of Gad.

The name GAD in Hebrew could be rendered as Goth since the sign accounting for the asound (holem) in Gadwas then rendered as o. In addition an unaccented dwas pronounced like an English th. Thus Gad = Goth.


GAD a name for Goth.

Gudos was also a name for the Goths.

Getae were a Gothic group in the Balkans and Scandinavia or the name is just another form of Goth.

Guti was a name for the Goths both in Scandinavia and east of the Caspian though some modern historians incorrectly transliterate the name (from Chinese characters) as Yueh-chi.

Guthones = Goths on Baltic coast.

Gautoi in Scandinavia.

Gadrosia in Iran.,

Gad was a name for Goths and an identifying root in Gothic toponomy.

Pasargadoi meant Sons of Gadin ancient Iran.

Thatagydes in ancient Afghanistan: Thata-represented the Teutons and Gydes  the Goths.

Gadeni in Scotland.

Gaedhal in ancient Scotland and Ireland.

Geddingas were an Anglo-Saxon associated sub-tribe.


Ziphion: Thaifalli  (Gothic allies from Scythia migrated to France),

Haggi  (Chaggi): Chauci   (Franks also known as Hugo, and as Hocing).   Yngling (Sweden), Cauci (Ireland).

Huguenots of France named after a legendary Hugoidentifiable as Haggiof Gad.

Shuni (Suni): Suiones (Sweden).

Etsbon: Bastarnae (Gothic Galatian group moved to France), Astings, Hastings (Vandal group invaded England and Scotland).

Ozni: Osnabruch (Frankish Germany).

Eri (Geri): Grani (Sweden), Greotingi (Goths, Sweden).

Arodi (Ha-Arodi): Harudi (Norway), Hreadgoths (Scandinavia).

Areli (Ha-Eruli): Eruli (Herules) -associated with Goths, Sweden. It should be mentioned that in Hebrew the Arodi  are referred to as Ha-Arodi(i.e. The Arodi)  and the Areli as Ha-Areli(i.e. The Areli).

Guni: Chouni (Huns), see Guni of Naphtali (Egan -Denmark, Gugerni-  Holland).

Israeli stamp showing a camp of tents. This was one of the traditional symbols of Gad.

In the first edition of The Tribesit was stated that the Herules settled in Ostgoterland in Sweden.  This information has since been contested. Mr. Orjan Svensson of Karlskrona in Sweden has written to me stating that the inhabitants of Blekinge in the south of Sweden have a tradition that they are descended from the Herules. In his opinion descendants of the Herules are more likely to be found in the south than in the east though he also says that no one really knows for sure in which part of Sweden the Herules settled. Mr. Svensson sent me an article (in Swedish) by Tommy Westerberg from which it appears that the Herules settled in Bleking and on the isle of Bornholm which is to the southeast of Sweden though it belongs to Denmark. The said article notes that the Herules (on their return to Scandinavia) included a definite eastern element that is traced to Armenia and the Caucasus. These in the opinion of Westerberg may also have been
descendants of Jews or of other Israelites.  Herules also settled at one stage in Holland and in other parts of Europe.

  Dr. Kjell Artuns Runer(Oslo, Norway, 1994) proves in general that the Runes originated in the Middle East area. Dr. Kjell Artuns and Orjan Svensson (of Blekinge in Sweden) have shown that the language of some of the runic inscriptions is Semitic; in some cases it is Hebrew and in others  Aramaic or related dialects!!