"Brit-Am Now"-742
1. URLs of interest on Biblical Geography
2. The Temple at Baal Bek: King Solomon or Only the Romans?
(a) Baal Bek in Lebanon
(b) Photos
(c) No-nonsense posting about Baal-Bek
Not so gigantic! built entirely by Romans!
(d) Painting of Baal Bek by David Roberts
(e) Built by Solomon?
(f)  Immanuel Velikovsky 1895-1979)
Baal Bak is Ancient Dan? (An Interesting and valuable article)
3. Brit-Am Replies to Queries: Subject and Question List

1. URLs of interest on Biblical Geography

2. The Temple at Baal Bek: King Solomon or Only the Romans?
(a) Baal Bek in Lebanon
BaalBek (Baalbec, Bal-Bekaa, Baal-Bek)
A very important Roman temple in Lebanon, Baalbek has the largest building stones ever used. Its walls contain stones of about 800 tons each and a 1000 ton stone was apparently abandoned in transit. (the largest movable land based cranes in the world can lift 200 tons, sea based cranes are larger)
Some observers have commented that it appears the stones were reused from an earlier structure. Others insist that only Roman artifacts have been found here. A simple dig at the 1000 ton "Stone of the South" - also called the "Stone of the Pregnant Woman", which was apparently abandoned in transit, could perhaps establish its' age from the sediment layers around it - it is not likely to have been moved!

(b) Photos

(c) No-nonsense posting about Baal-Bek:
Not so gigantic! built entirely by Romans!
This article is from Doug Weller a veteran and compulsive "debunker" of eccentric Ancient  History
Theories of all kinds, tends to exaggerate etc, but is sometimes worth checking in order to obtain
more of a balanced opinion.

(d) Painting of Baal Bek by David Roberts

(e) Built by Solomon?
see old drawing
In this large plain, between the Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon, there also stood formerly the celebrated city Heliopolis, consecrated by the Greeks to the worship of the sun (from Helis, the sun, Polis, town), which is now known as Baal-bek (from Baal, Belus, and Bikah, valley). This town is still famous for its remarkable ruins, which are undisputably the most gigantic in all Palestine, and are well calculated to influence every beholder with astonishment. In the remains of the ancient Temple of the Sun can be seen stones which are 60 feet in length, 12 in thickness, and 12 in height; and the simple view of these blocks causes a species of awe; as no one can. imagine how human hands were enabled to erect so wonderful a structure. This colossal building, erected by Solomon, it being undoubtedly the Baalath mentioned in the first book of Kings (9:18), was destroyed in the year 5162 (1402), by the conqueror Tamerlane;* and that which resisted his destructive inroad was overthrown 356 years later, through the terrific earthquake in the year 5518 (1758), which caused such great devastation in the plain of Lebanon and the country of Galilee.

According to Josephus (Antiq. viii. book viii., chap. 2), was the Baalath erected by Solomon in the vicinity of Gezer of Joshua 10:33, not far from Jaffa on the Mediterranean, in the country of Ephraim. According to this assumption, it would appear that this town had the origin and derived its name from the same circumstances as that in the tribe of Dan. (See Joshua 19:44.) But Rabbi Benjamin of Tudela thinks that the temple of Baal-bek was originally the house built by Solomon for Pharaoh's daughter in Lebanon. (1 Kings 7:8.)

(f)  Immanuel Velikovsky 1895-1979)
Baal Bak is Ancient Dan? (An Interesting and valuable article)
<<The biblical Dan is placed on the upper flow of the Jordan because of a passage in Josephus Flavius. In his Jewish Antiquities, Josephus says that Dan was on "a spot not far from Mount Libanus and the sources of the lesser Jordan". Antiquities V.3.i. Commentators of Josephus deduced that by the "lesser Jordan" the upper flow of the Jordan, above the Lake of Huleh, or above the Lake of Tiberias, is meant; however, this interpretation is not supported by the words "not far from Mount Libanus" since, from the surroundings of el-Kadi and the sources of the Jordan, the snow-capped Hermon or Anti-Lebanon can be seen in the distance, but not Lebanon, far behind the Anti-Lebanon.

<<After having chosen the source of the Jordan as the area where to look for Dan, this ancient city was located at el-Kadi for the following reason: the name Dan is built of the Hebrew root that signifies "to counsel" or "to judge". El-Kadi means in Arabic "the judge". There was no other reason, beside this philological equation of Hebrew and Arabic terms, to locate the site of the ancient temple city in the small village of el-Kadi, sinceuntil quite recentlyno ruins, large or small, were found on the site.

<<The aforementioned reference in Josephus makes one wonder whether by "the lesser Jordan" the river Litani was meant. This river begins in the valley between Mount Lebanon and Mount Anti-Lebanon, flows to the south in the same rift in which farther to the south the Jordan flows, and towards the source of that river, but changes its course and flows then westwards and empties itself into the Mediterranean. Its source being near Mount Lebanon, it appears that the Litani was meant by "the lesser Jordan".


Local tradition, which may be traced to the early Middle Ages, points to a definite period in the past when Baalbek was built: the time of Solomon.

Ildrisi, the Arab traveler and geographer (1099-1154), wrote: "The great (temple-city) of astonishing appearance was built in the time of Solomon." [Idrisi in P. Jaubert, `Geographie d'Edrisi' (Paris, 1836-1840), I, p. 353; quoted by C. Ritter, Die Erdkunde, Vol. XVII (Berlin, 1854), p. 224.] Gazwini (d. 1823 or 4) explained the origin of the edifices and the name of the place by connecting it with Balkis, the legendary Queen of the South, and with Solomon. [Al-Qazwini Zakariya ibn Muhammad, `Kosmographie', H. F. W stenfeld ed. (Berlin, 1848-49), II, p. 104.]

The traveler Benjamin of Tudela wrote in the year 1160 of his visit to Baalbek: "This is the city which is mentioned in Scripture as Baalath in the vicinity of the Lebanon, which Solomon built for the daughter of Pharaoh. The place is constructed with stones of enormous size." [A. Asher tr. and ed.. The Itinerary of Benjamin of Tudela (N.Y. 1840-41).]

Robert Wood, who stayed at Baalbek in the 1750's, and who published an unsurpassed monograph on its ruins, wrote: "The inhabitants of this country, Mohomedans, Jews and Christians, all confidently believe that Solomon built both, Palmyra and Baalbek." [R.Wood, `The Ruins of Palmyran Baalbek', (London, 1827), p.58.] Another traveler who visited Syria in the eighties of the eighteenth century recorded: 'The inhabitants of Baalbek assert that this edifice was constructed by Djenoun, or genies in the service of King Solomon." [C. F. Volney, op. cit., p. 224.]

3. Brit-Am Replies to Queries: Subject and Question List
For links to the articles and questions below go to:
  Questions  and Answers
Table of Contents

1. Are the Amerindians from the Lost Tribes?


Anti-Semitism in Brit-Am Nations see Criteria below


1. What are Chariots of the Sun?
2. What Evidence Do We Have that Israelites were in Spain?
3. What do Dolmens and other megalithic monuments such as Stonehenge tell us?
4. What archaeological evidence do we have linking Ancient Israel with the west?
5. What archaeological evidence is there to justify the Brit-Am scenario of Israel Migration Patterns?

1. Is Australia the Land of Sinim?
2. Do the Bible Codes Prove that Australia belongs to Joseph and that Australia is the Land of Sinim?

Being Sure of Israelite Descent
1. Question: How does one know for sure that one is descended from Israel?



Biblical Studies

1. How do you explain the traditional anti-Jewish and anti-Israel attitude of the British?
2. Are there many people of Jewish descent in Britain, North America, and related countries?
3. Is there anything peculiarly Israelite about Wales ?
4. What are the Ephraimite Characteristics of Britain?
5. What about Scotland ?
6. Who were the Peoples of Britain?
7. What does "Brit-Ish" mean in Hebrew?
8. What is the Relationship between Britain and the British Diaspora as far as the Tribes are concerned?
9. What is the attitude of the British towards the State of Israel and the Jews?
10. Britain was the leading Colonial Power. "The Sun Never Set on the British Empire".
Was Colonialism Beneficial?
Was it an aspect of Promised Biblical Destiny?

1. Is Brit-Am another form of British-Israel?
2. Is Brit-Am  a White Supremacist Movement?
4. Does Brit-Ish really mean "Man of the Covenant" in Hebrew?
5. In Brit-Am correspondence and articles the expressions "we" and "us" occur frequently though it appears that the writer, Yair Davidiy, is intended, why is this?
6. Is Brit-Am Dangerous?
"T" asks:
<<An acquaintance keeps saying to me that Brit-Am is dangerous. She seems to claim that Brit-Am is liable to provide justification for anti-Semitic "Identity" movements or for Christian groups who claim they have an equal right to the land of Israel as the Jews or who may use "Brit-Am" type beliefs as a tool to missionize Jews.
<<I tell her that Brit-Am is a good positive movement but it would be easier if I had a specific article on your web-site directly dealing with these issues to which I could refer.

British Israel see "Brit-Am" above.


Captive Jews
1. What Are "Captive Jews"?
2. Question: What are Marranos, Conversos, Anusim?

Barry Chamish
1. Are the Conspiracy Theories of Barry Chamish Correct?
Just for the Record
a. The Israeli Shekel Coin
b. The Protocols of Zion.
c. Major Organizations such as the "Vatican, the UN, UNESCO, the World Council of Churches, the Bilderberg Group and the Freemasons" etc
d. The Jews in the Second Temple Period only worshipped ONE GOD.
e. Kabbalah
f. Catholicism:
g. Inquisition
2. What do you think of the Conspiracy Ideas of Barry Chamish?
Yet Another Blood Libel From Barry Chamish
Barry Chamish Caught Lieing As Usual
3. What Kind of Reaction Have you had from followers of BC?
4. Is Barry Chamish a Holocaust Denier?
5. Is Barry Chamish linked to anti-Semites?
6. Chamish claims that Jewish followers of Jacob Frank are responsible for much of the troubles in the world today and that they control the Jewish Establishment and the State of Israel.
What do you say to that?

1. Reply to Messianic Jewish Objections.
2. Can Brit-Am be Reconciled with the New Testament?
3. What is the Attitude of the Mormon Church to Brit-Am?
4. Do you think that the present "Evangelical" and Fundamentalist regard for Israel indicates an arousal of "Joseph"?
5. "Brit-Am, The Jewish Aspect, and Eddie Chumney"
Brit-Am and Brit-Am type beliefs have been unjustly attacked by elements associated with the so-called "Messianic Jews". Are "Ephraimites" preferable?
6. In articles that Brit-Am replied to an unfavorable impression was given by others concerning the Messianic Israelite Alliance headed by Angus and Batya Wootten.
How does Brit-Am relate to this?


1. Are "conspiracy" Theories Correct?
2. Are Conspiracy Dangerous and Harmful to those who believe in them? Secular Humanists and Conspiracy Theorists are your enemy and ours!!!
3. Are Conspiracy Theories Against the Bible?
4. What do you think of the Conspiracy Ideas of Barry Chamish?
6. Is Rejection of Conspiracy Theory Consistent With Biblical Prophecy?
7. What Kind of Reaction" has Brit-Am Experienced from its Stand Against Conspiracy Theories?
8. How can you be against Conspiracy Theories when history is full of examples of groups conspiring together?
9. What is "Conspiracy" with a Capital "C"?

Conspiracy Watch
Includes Conspiracy Update
Dean Van Druff
"A CALL TO REPENTANCE. Move Away from Conspiracy Theories" by Dean Van Druff
"Answers to Conspiracy FAQ" by Dean Van Druff
Questions Answered by Dean Van Druff Include:
Who is a Real Believer? Conspiracy Nuts or their Opponents?
Are Only "Pinkey" Liberals Against Conspiracy Theories?
"Every one dollar bill is covered with Masonic symbolism..."
Are you trying to imply that all Conspiracy Theorists MUST be anti-Semitic?
How can you deny we are moving to a one world government? What about the UN? What about the New World Order? What about...(etc., etc., etc.)?
"This great Christian nation is being taken over by infidels and traitors. Don't you know that Washington, DC is filled with Masonic symbols and.... "
Do they who believe in Conspiracy Theories Need to repent?
Are they who hold by Conspiracy Theories Repeating the Evil-Worshipping Heresy of Gnosticism?
"You are agents of Satan and enemies of God since you are trying to turn the eye of the true believers from the massive conspiracy plotted against us".
"Your view of conspiracy theory all depends on your view of eschatology!"
"Don't you think Satan works through people to further his plans, just as God works to further His?"
Is Conspiracy in the Bible?
Do not the Financial Policies of Governments and the Great Banks Prove Conspiracy?
Are Not Conspiracy Buffs Intelligent People?
Do You Deny that Conspiracy Theorists Are often Right?

The Ephraim or Manasseh Controversy
1. How can you be sure that the British and kin are Ephraim ?
There are those who say the opposite and identify Manasseh with Britain and Ephraim with the USA.

1. How do you explain dislike of Jews amongst Brit-Am peoples?
2. What are the Brit-Am Criteria and can you give examples of their application?

1. What are some customs that indicate Israelite Origins?




1. What Proof is there linking Brit-Am Western Peoples to the Middle East and Ancient Israel?
2. Are there reports of DNA studies where DNA Scientists themselves admit that their conclusions are uncertain?
3. What limitations do DNA tests have?
4. What Does Palestinian DNA Show US?
5. What Can DNA Studies in General Tell Us?
6. How Does Jewish DNA compare with British?
7. How would you summarize the Brit-Am reservations concerning DNA?
8. What is mtDNA and what can it tell us?
(a) General Introduction
(b) British mtDNA
(c) Jewish mtDNA

1. Who is Edom?
2. Are there Edomites Amongst Us?


1. What are "Ephraimites"?
2. What is the connection between Brit-Am and "Ephraimites"?
3. What criticisms are made against "Ephraimites" and how does that concern Brit-Am? The criticisms are listed below and then answered. It is to be stressed that they refer ONLY to a small minority of Ephraimites.
(1. Ephraimites claim they are physical descendents of Israelites.
(2. Ephraimites adopt Jewish practices in their worship and call each other "Rabbi" etc.
(3. Ephraimites make statements as if they have an equal claim to the Land of Israel as the Jews.
(4. Ephraimites on rare but noted occasions have given the impression that it is the Jews (especially the Orthodox) who are preventing their dwelling in the land.
(5. A few Ephraimites sometimes make anti-Jewish remarks or have anti-Jewish attitudes.
(6. Ephraimites have a missionary attitude as if they want Jews to leave Judaism and join them since they have the same thing or a combination that is even better.
(7. Ephraimites sometimes, it is implied, appear to take an "Identity" type approach as if they are the "True Israelites" and the Jews are not.
OR Ephraimites could give legitimacy to groups who already make such claims.
4. What is the Brit-Am "Ephraimite" Tour of Israel?

1.How Many Major Exiles Were There?
2. What Can You tell us about the Exile of the Ten Tribes?





1. Brit-Am does not include Germany amongst the 'Israelite" nations. What is your explanation for the fact that a great many citizens of the USA descend from German immigrants?
2. There may be Germans today from Germany who believe they descend from Israel. What would you say to them?
3. What is the origin of the German peoples and to whom are they related?

1. Is Russia Gog and Magog? China? Korea?

1. What historical evidence is there to justify Brit-Am beliefs that the Lost Ten Tribes migrated to the west?
2. According to what Migratory Routes did the Ten Tribes come Westward?
3. Who Were the Hyksos?
4. What Connection did the Phoenicians have with Israel?
5. Who Were the Sea-Peoples?
6. Were the Celts Hebrews?

1. What can the Holocaust teach us?
2. What Significance does the Holocaust have from a Brit-Am perspective?
3. What Connection did the Arabs have?

1. What Tribes do the Irish belong to?
2. What is especially Israelite about Ireland?


1. Are the Japanese Descended from Israelites?

1. Are all the Gentiles Joseph?
2. Will Joseph receive all the blessings?
3. How Did Joseph Receive the Blessings?
4. What Are Some Distinguishing Points About Judah and Joseph?
6. What are some Israelite-Manasseh Characteristics of the USA?
7. Is the US and British presence in Iraq the beginning of the Return of Joseph to the Promised Land?
8. Can the name of Ephraim be seen on the mountains of Samaria by satellite?
9. How can you be sure that the British and kin are Ephraim? There are those who say the opposite and identify Manasseh with Britain and Ephraim with the USA.
10. Does Joseph Need Judah?

1. Are Israel and Judah Really Distinctly Different Entities?
2. Are the Jews Really Only Judah?
3. Does Judah Need Joseph?
4. Are the Ashkenazi (European) Jews Descended from the Khazars or from Edomites?
5. If the Ashkenazi (European) Jews are NOT Descended from the Khazars, etc, why do some Jewish sources say they are?
6. What Are "Captive Jews"?
7. Who Were the Subbotniks?
8. Who Were the "Red Jews"?
9. What are the Characteristics of Judah?
10. What is the Jewish reaction to Brit-Am?
11. What evidence is there from Rabbinical sources that justify Brit-Am beliefs?
12. What does "Ashkenazi" mean?
13. What does "Sephardi" mean?
14. Who Were the Khazars?
15. Should People of Jewish Ancestry who belong to Judah Keep the Law?
16. What are Marranos, Conversos, Anusim?
17. Will Judah be instrumental in the return of the Ten Tribes?
18. Question: Why Should Brit-Am interest Judah?
19. What is a "Jew" from the Tribal perspective? Are all Israelites "Jews"?

1. What Proof Do we have Concerning the Oral Law?
2. How do you view the Talmud?
3. Are Rabbinical Explanations derived from the Bible?
If so, can you give an example?
4. Judaism says that a person is a Jew if they are born of a Jewish mother or have undergone a valid Conversion.
Is there any Biblical foundation for the "Jewish Mother" Law?
5. Who were the Karaites?
6. Should all Israelites keep "Kosher"?


Land of Israel
2. Is the Island of Cyprus Part of the Promised Land of Israel?
3. What Are the Boundaries of the Promised Land According to the Bible?

Law (Mosaic)
1. Are the Lost Ten Tribes Obligated by the Mosaic Law Today?
2. Do Members of the Lost Tribes Have to be Circumcised?

1. What linguistic evidence is there to justify Brit-Am beliefs that the Lost Ten Tribes migrated to the west?
2. What relevance do the theories of Theo Venneman have to Brit-Am?
3. What Significance does the work of Orjan Svensson have?

Movement of Arab Populations (MAP)

Literal Meaning of Scripture
1. Were Promises of becoming a great multitude literary hyperbole?

1. Is King David the "Messiah"?
2. How many Messiahs Will There Be?
3. A descendant of David founded a dynasty that intermarried with the aristocratic families of Britain and France. What can you tell us on this matter?
4. Will the Tribes return before the Coming of the Messiah?
5. Are the Monarchs of Britain Descended from King David?
6. Who was Tea Tephi?


New Zealand


1. Who is Orjan Svensson?
Contemporary Scandinavia and Israel

Other Claims to be descended from the Lost Ten Tribes

Peoples and Places
3. Are there Israelites in Italy?
4. Question on Hungarians
5. Are there any of the Lost Ten Tribes in Eastern or African Lands?
6. Who are the Portuguese?
7. Who are the Gypsies?
8. What about Bulgaria?
10. Are the Burmese Israelites?
11. Are there Israelites in Afghanistan?
12. What about other European Peoples?
13. Question on the Poles


Promises and Prophecy
2. What Are Prototypical Prophecies?
3. Can Prophecy Change? Does what is prophesied have to come about?
4. How will the Return Take Place?
5. Why Were Israelites Chosen? What for?
6. (a) How Do We Know that Prophecies concerning the Lost Ten Tribes have not already been fulfilled?
(b) Also, How do we know that such prophecies are to be taken Literally?

1. One of your proofs involves the exagerated consumption of alcohol?
2. Question about African Slaves; Does Prophecy indicate that Africans would be brought in chains to the homeland of the Lost Ten Tribes?
3. Blessings were made to Abraham and Isaac but they had other sons. The Arabs through Ishmael are descended from Abraham. Will they not share the blessings?
4. Question on "Kings"
5. Remark on Kings and Descendants of David
6. Population
7. What are some Geographical Proofs?
8. What Evidence is there for Brit-Am beliefs from Talmudic and Rabbinical Sources?

2. What Are Prototypical Prophecies?
3. Can Prophecy Change? Does what is prophesied have to come?
4. How will the Return Take Place?
5. Why Were Israelites Chosen? What for?
6. (a) How Do We Know that Prophecies concerning the Lost Ten Tribes have not already been fulfilled?
(b) Also, How do we know that such prophecies are to be taken Literally?

1. Is Miscegenation (Racial Mixing) Forbidden?
2. What Was the Racial Constitution of Ancient Israelites?
3. Are there Black Israelites?
4. Can "Racial" Features be Acquired through Environmental Influence?
Article: Human Races Can Change.
Background: The Kennewick Man
5. Did King David have Red Hair?
6. Who Were the "Red Jews"?
7. What is the Status of Non-Israelites under Biblical Law?
8. Is there any connection between Israelite ancestry and red hair?

1. What is a "Goi"?
5. Should they who accept Brit-Am belief concerning their descent from the Lost Ten Tribes convert to Judaism?
6. What obligations do non-Jewish descendants of Israel have today?
7. Should Descendants of the Lost Ten Tribes keep the Law of Moses?

Returning to the Land of Israel
1. Who Has a Right to Live in the Land of Israel?
3. Do you think that members of the Lost Tribes should move to Israel at present?
4. If all the Lost Ten Tribes Return to the Land of Israel will there be Enough Room for them?



1. What is Israelite about Scotland?
2. Were the Picts of Scotland related to the Khazars?

Reunification of Joseph and Judah


South Africa
1. What do the Prophets say of South Africa and the Boers?



1. Is the Great Seal of the USA a Masonic Symbol?
2. Does the John Bull representation of Britain have Biblical significance?
3. Is there a Biblical source for the Magen David ("Star" of David) symbol?
4. Does the Confederate Flag have any Israelite Significance?
5. What are the Symbols of Joseph?
6. What is the Brit-Am Symbol?
7. What is the significance of the "Union Jack"?
8. Who has the right to bear arms?
9. What are the Tribal Symbols?

1. Where was Tarshish?
(a) In General;
(b) In the Bible?
Tarshish in Spain
The Bible and Tarshish
The Eastern Solution?
Brit-Am Replies to the "Eastern Solution"
The Tarsis (Anatolian) Suggestion?
Reply to Walter Mattfield
2. Was Atlantis Tarshish?
3. What do archaeological Finds tell us about Tarshish?
4. What Connection did the "Iberians" have with Tarshish?
5. Is Britain Tarshish?
6. Is America Tarshish?

1. What are the characteristics of Benjamin?
2. What Nation does Gad Represent.
3. When the Ten Tribes were deported .... did this include Simeon or not?
4. It is customary to speak of the Twelve Tribes of Israel but when one counts them there are thirteen. Why is this?
5. Where is Naphtali?
6. Is Issachar Finland?
7. Is Zebulon Holland?
8. What were the symbols of the Tribes?
9. The traditional "British-Israel" tendency is to identify Norway with Benjamin whereas Brit-Am identifies Norway with Naphtali and Benjamin with the Normans who from Normandy In France conquered England in 1066. How do you explain the disparity of your positions?
10. Is Tribal Identity still of significance? If so, how can we know to what Tribe we belong?
11. What was the task of the Tribe of Levi?
12. Some people attribute negative qulaities to the Tribe of Dan. Is there anything of substance in this?
13. What significance do the different clans within the Tribes have?
14. Yair Davidiy: What Tribe do you Belong to?
15. It was prophesied that the Tribe of Asher would "dip his feet in oil". Is there a link to petroleum?
16. Is France Reuben?


1. What Israelite Significance do the Confederates Have?
2. Did Ancient Israelites Visit North America Before Colombus?
3. Are there Tribal Differences between the Different Regions of the USA?
4. What is the attitude of people in the USA towards the Jews?
5. What is the relevance of the USA to the prophecy that Israel would "SAY TO THE PRISONERS, GO FORTH" [Isaiah 49:9]?
6. Brit-Am identifies the USA with Manasseh and Britain with her offshoots as Ephraim.
Not everybody agrees with this identification.
What is your answer?
7. What can Biblical Place-Names in the USA tell us?
8. Who Are the Melungeons?
9. Were the Founding Fathers of the USA aware of their Israelite Ancestry?
10. What about immigrants from Germany and other non-Hebrew areas? Are they also Israelites?


1. Was the Oslo Agreement Justified?