"Brit-Am Now"-899
1. Article on Phoenician Expansion Under Assyria
2. Question on the name "Sciot"
3. Another Unconvinced Erstwhile Subscriber
4. Kevin Opp: Different Tribal and Other Appearances
5. Phoenician International Maritime Enterprise and Assyrian Expansion

1. Article on Phoenician Expansion Under Assyria
Phoenicia and Its Colonies
Business History, April 2000 v42 i2 p17

Multinational Enterprise in Ancient Phoenicia

Karl James Moore and David Charles Lewis

* Excerpts:
Extracts from the Excerpts

State-supported but family-owned and managed firms headquartered in the Old Assyrian capital of Ashur opened subsidiary trading and manufacturing offices in Babylon, Syria, other parts of northern Iraq, and, most importantly, the city of Kanesh in Cappadocia, from which a number of smaller offices in Anatolia (modern Turkey) were managed. Similar multinational firms, on a smaller scale, were found in Babylonia under Hammurabi and, later, the Kassite kings who set up subsidiary trading offices on Bahrain in the Arabian Gulf.

At its peak, Phoenician businessmen directed intercontinental enterprises trading in silver from Spain, tin from Britain, ivory from Africa, copper from Cyprus, iron from Syria, and textiles and manufactured goods from all over the Mediterranean. Their investments reached from the Atlantic to the Assyrian Empire. ...

Having established their own lucrative firms by the year 1000 BC, the merchants of Tyre rapidly began to outdistance all other Phoenician traders. Placed on an offshore island with a well-protected harbour, Tyre was naturally endowed for long-distance maritime trade. ...

In the period between 1000 and 500 BC, the merchants of Tyre achieved dominance in, if not control over, international trade in the Near East, the Mediterranean, and, for a time, even the Indian Ocean and its tributaries ...

The climactic Intercontinental-Multinational Phase, 840-538 BC, of Tyrian trade and investment expansion began on the heels of Jehu's revolt and culminated in the period of the Neo-Assyrian Empire in the eighth and seventh centuries BC. Phoenician investment not only flowed into Assyria and Babylonia but even reached across the central and western Mediterranean to North Africa and the Atlantic coast of Spain. The rise of Assyria was the major catalyst of the new Phoenician strategy.

In the days of Itobaal, the armies of Ashurnasirpal II and Shalmaneser III marched westward across the Euphrates, exacting tribute from terrified Phoenician rulers. The Assyrian presence became much more immediate after 733 BC when the armies of Tiglath-Pileser III, Shalmaneser V, Sargon II and Sennacherib conquered Syria and Israel. Assyrian influence over Phoenicia reached its peak under Esarhaddon (680-69 BC). Mainland Phoenicia was divided into three Assyrian provinces called Simya, Sidon and Ushu, and many of the inhabitants were deported. Tyre kept her independence, but only under the harsh terms of a vassal treaty dictated by Esarhaddon to the Tyrian Prince Ba'alu. ...

Assyria's efforts to monopolise Tyre's trade with the rest of Asia, ironically, permitted Phoenician commerce to seduce even the might of Nineveh. Assyria's landlocked kings left their western trade in the hands of the people who knew and managed it best, be they settlers or deportees. A firm run by the Sidonian Hanunu became chief supplier of the Empire's dyed fabrics; Oubasti, exiled to Nineveh by Sennacherib as a youth, became the city's chief porter. The eastern network of merchants, organised in the time of Itobaal, in Cilicia, Aleppo, Carchemish and now even Nineveh and Babylon continued to ship goods to and from points west, leaving them in the hands of Phoenician companies, their partners and subsidiaries. The Tyre-Nineveh partnership followed a commercial pattern established centuries before, when Babylonian and Ugaritic merchants joined hands to finance large-scale trade between Mesopotamia and the West. Bulk shipments of metals, textiles, foodstuffs and processed goods, including purple dye, plied up and down the Euphrates and crossed Syrian mountains and plains, paid for in silver and textiles by consortia of Canaanite, Babylonian and Assyrian merchants. Babylonian and Assyrian firms and their employees formed price-fixing partnerships to purchase Phoenician goods and distribute them to their subcontractors. Temples of Ashur, Marduk and Melkart provided capital, direction and storage facilities. In the eighth and seventh centuries BC, Babylonia was now a vassal of Assyrian kings using the Euphratean trading system for their own ends. Tyre became Assyria's source not only of huge quantities of dyed garments but also silver and iron. Lacking the iron deposits needed to equip their vast armies or the silver to finance them, the kings of Nineveh turned to their Tyrian vassals and clients to supply them, much as Germany in the Second World War turned to Sweden for iron ore and Switzerland for hard currency.

Assyrian control of Near Eastern markets and resources encouraged Tyre's merchants to embark upon an ambitious new strategy. Becoming Nineveh's supplier and banker preserved Tyre's independence while guaranteeing it a vast market on the Assyrian-held mainland. The potential profits from selling precious metals, raw materials and finished goods to the Assyrian Empire in bulk were sufficient to justify creation of the first intercontinental multinational enterprises. The advanced stage of Tyrian commerce and its relationship with Assyria offered Tyrian firms just the right combination of advantages, described in Dunning's eclectic paradigm, to make multinational investment on a larger scale than ever before expedient and profitable. Tyre's firms possessed ownership-specific advantages in the form of the finest merchant marine in the world, the skills of its sailors, smiths, financiers and a powerful, well-organised network of shipping and trading companies, supported by both the crown and supervised by a multi national temple hierarchy. The location-specific variables were also favourable for the creation of a sea-based empire: being headquartered on an almost impregnable island with direct access to the ports, trade routes and resources of three continents were ideal for any firms interested in overseas investment. Most importantly, the ability of Tyre's business establishment to invest abroad on a large scale in the form of managed hierarchies and partnerships provided internalisation advantages over Greeks, Egyptians or any other potential competitors. Unlike these others, Tyre's business establishment, directed by the Melkart hierarchy, would possess sufficient capital to minimise risk and circumvent market failure through its state-supported merchant fleets. ...

Led by Tyre, the city-states of ancient Phoenicia became the greatest seafaring traders of ancient times.

2. Question on the name "Sciot"

I have been surfing the internet, looking for genealogical info on the name: Sciot.
I have found some stuff about the 'Gaal of Sciot Iber'....I am just wondering if the word 'Sciot' has any particular meaning? In fact it's my mothers lastname...I know that only a very few people in France & Belgium, Italy & America carry this name...
If you know anything about a particular meaning or whatsoever related to 'Sciot', please let me know.
I am looking forward hearing from you!
Kind Regards,


We are not about to give a clear-cut answer but rather indicate different sources and possibilities
that may give us food for thought on this matter.

Sciot in the 'Gaal of Sciot Iber' is another form of Scot.

In Gaelic is said to connote "wanderer" similar to the meaning "Hebrew".
On the other hand the word "Scott" in Greek and other "Indo-European" tongues
indicates Concealed or "hidden" similar to the proposed derivation of Celt from "ceilt".

First Literary Reference to Celts: A Hidden People
The first literary reference to the Celtic people, as keltoi or hidden
people, is by the Greek Hecataeus in 517 BC.

A Roman poet, Avienus, quoted "the secret annals of Carthage" and based a poem "Ora Maritima" partly on the report of a Carthaginian Admiral, Himilco, who sailed around Britain. Avienus reported the Oestrymnis in Brittany and a similarly named entity in Britain. Borchart understood this term, in Hebrew, to mean "the hidden people", based on the root "Sater" to hide. ("Lost Israelite Identity" p.284).

We have spoken of a link between the Lost Ten Tribes and the "hidden ones"

see also:
"Brit-Am Now"-859
#2. Hidden "Stephen" and the Lost Ten Tribes
#3. The "HIDDEN ONES" of Israel

Scot is also considered another form of "Scythe" i.e. Scythian.
It has been proposed to derive the word "Scythian" from "Succoth".
Our understanding however is that "Scythoi" was the Greek form of "Saka"
or "Saka-thoi" and that "Saka" is a form of Isaac.
We have explained this in "The Tribes".

3. Another Unconvinced Erstwhile Subscriber
From: Rjm
Subject: unsubscribe me

I find your articles to be anthropologically and historically and most of all...biblically incorrect.
Please, do some introspection regarding your very obvious racism.

4. Kevin Opp: Different Tribal and Other Appearances
From: Kevin Opp <>
Subject: RE: "Brit-Am Now"-898 - Of Color???
#2. You Cannot Win them all!

The scoffers comment "of color." Is about the most ignorant comment I have ever seen on this web listing. Joseph had sons of a Eqyptian. Judah of a caananite. Moses married a Cushite woman who would have been black.
Solomon had sons and daughters of princesess of nations from all over the world. Not to mention the mixed multitude who came out of the Exodus and all the sojurnors of different races who became Israel suh as Ruth the Moabitess. Each individual tribe had their own look and behavior patterns, such as how Ephraim was distinguished in the book of Judges because they couldnt make the SH.. sound. Moses children from the Cushite would have been dark, Joseph and his sons different obviously than Judah and his sons.
Solomon probably has thousands of children all over the planet, possibly still in royalty who are of all colors. One of the tribal princes of Swaziland, a small country in South Africa, recently converted to Judaism and moved to Israel, he is pitch black. Israel is not a color, nor was it ever, Israel is a people, and a diverse people. Israel is known by the heart , not by the outward appearance. While Judah, a great nation, has a look and behavior to themselves. Ephraim, a multitude of nations, has many differents looks to themselves.


5. Phoenician International Maritime Enterprise and Assyrian Expansion
Jerusalem News-616
#3. A Mysterious Map, Assyrian Expansion, and Friendly Arabs
This map depicts
Phoenician Maritime Enterprise including the Circumnavigation of Africa beginning from the Red Sea southward.
In the West the Phoenicians were used by the Assyrians along with Philistines.
In the East the Assyrians had transferred colonies of Phoenicians to
the Persian Gulf region and used them (as well as Babylonian-Chaldeans)
for trade with India, Indonesia, and the east.
The map shows (or can be used to show) Assyrian domination and influence
in Scandinavia as well as Southern Europe.
It should be considered in light of
entry no.1 above
(1. Article on Phoenician Expansion Under Assyria

See also:
Jerusalem News-616
#3. A Mysterious Map, Assyrian Expansion, and Friendly Arabs