"Brit-Am Now"-168
1. Note on "Brit-Am Now"-167: Aspourgos = Joseph?
2. Gibraltar
3. Question on  Scythians
4. Orde Wingate

1. Note on "Brit-Am Now"-167: Aspourgos = Joseph?
re: "Brit-Am Now"-167: Aspourgos = Joseph?
In The Tribes we related the names of Scythian peoples such as the Aspacarea and Aspageni, Aspassi, to Joseph, see p.76 (first edition, 1993), p.319 (second edition).
We adduced reasons of our own as to why this root was to be connected to Joseph and showed how such a connection was consistent with later tradition in the area and with the names of other Scythian groups then in the area. In effect Haynman (1994) in relating the Scythian cultural hero Aspourgos to Joseph came to confirm our conclusion.
We had also noted the additional fact that neighboring and related Scythian peoples bore names that were identical with or very similar to those of important tribal clans belonging to the tribes of Joseph.                     

2. Gibraltar
Gibraltar is located in the area of ancient Tarshish that was visited by the ships of King Solomon and played an imp[ortant role in the movement of Israelites to Britain and Gaul.

In 711AD Tariq ibn Ziyad, the Muslim governor of Tangier, landed at Gibraltar to launch the Islamic invasion of the Iberian Peninsula. The Rock has carried his name ever since: Jebel Tariq (Tariq's Mountain).

Castilla wrested the Rock from the Muslims in 1462. Then in 1704 an Anglo-Dutch fleet captured Gibraltar during the War of the Spanish Succession. Spain ceded the Rock to Britain in 1713, but didn't end military attempts to regain it until the failure of the Great Siege of 1779-83. Britain developed it into an important naval base. During the Franco period, Gibraltar was an extremely sore point between Britain and Spain: the border was closed from 1967 to 1985. In 1969, Gibraltarians voted by 12,138 to 44 in favour of British rather than Spanish sovereignty, and a new constitution gave Gibraltar domestic self-government.

Today Spain offers Gibraltar autonomous-region status within Spain, but Britain and the Gibraltarians continue to reject any compromise over sovereignty. The British garrison was withdrawn in the early 1990s, but the British navy continues to use Gibraltar.

3. Question on  Scythians
Mr. Davidy,
I grew up in a church that believed they were modern-day descendants of the
Lost Ten Tribes of Israel. This church later recanted this position in 1995.
I'm trying to make my own investigation into this topic and had a question
for you.
Many have stated that the Scythians were descendants of the Lost Ten Tribes,
but I have read in the "The Antiquities of the Jews" by the Jewish historian
Flavius Josephus that the Scythians were descendants of Magog, son of Japhet.
I would like to hear your thoughts on this.
Best regards,
Mark R. KiserSt. Albans, WV

Answer: Josephus also says that the Lost Ten Tribes in his days were a great multitude and dwelt beyond the
Euphrates,  presumably in Parthia and Scythia.
Scythia in those days meant the area of the former USSR plus part of China in the east and parts of eastern Europe in the west.
Most of the peoples in "Scythia" were not Scythians.
The peoples of Scythia whom we do identify as Israelites include the Royal Scythians, Alans, and Alazonians, and some others in the west and the "Sacae" in the east. If Josephus is to be accepted as an authority (and this does not necessarily have to be) then he may be understood to be referring to some of the myriad peoples that populated Scythia and not to the real Scythians who were
a minority though they usually ruled over the others.

4. Family Information from Canada and Question on Khazars
At 13:32 11/12/2002 -0500, Andy wrote:

Hi Yair,
I am glad there is a person like you residing in Yerushalayim propagating the message of non-Jewish Israelites living as many nations in the western part of the world.
I was born and raised here in Canada, ...; both parents being of French descent, of the tribe of Reuben and Judah; a section of my mother's family crest portraying a red rampant lion of the line of Zarah Judah; her maiden name spelled as 'Bourque', and derived from the name 'Bourg' in France.
I visited Israel twice in 1992-93 and stayed in Lark Hotel on Latin Patriarchate St. inside the walled city of Jerusalem.
Israel is the most beautiful country on earth, and Jerusalem is a golden gem, and I really enjoyed my stay there, especially the weather at the Dead Sea region. I truly hope to permanently live there one day, as a citizen of Israel.
Have you read the book 'The Thirteenth Tribe' by Arthur Koestler, and what are your thoughts in regards to his research on the Khazar/Turkish link to Ashkenazi Jews not being blood related to any of the tribes of Israel?
Thank you and take care,
Koestler's book is interesting but contains nothing original. He hides information that would indicate that the Khazars were actually of Israelite descent.
We have spoken of this often.
No proof whatsoever that most (or even many) Jews are descended from Khazars.
No real proof that the Khazars were not of Israelite descent.
We have a few articles on this subject on our web page
and since the subject seems to have aroused general interest I will publish more on the matter in the near future, God willing.

4. Orde Wingate
Orde Wingate believed that the British were descended from the Lost Ten Tribes.
He was born to a Plymouth Brethren family.
He trained  Jewish soldiers to take the initiative against Arab terrorists and helped set the foundations for the Israeli army
and its operational doctrines.
In World War 2
With 12,000 mostly Ethiopian soldiers he bluffed 200,000 Italians into surrender.
His commando operations in Burma may not have been overwhelmingly successful in their own right but they frightened
the Japanese into diverting their forces and thus helped ensure an allied victory.

There was a man of genius who might well have
become also a man of destiny. - Winston Churchill on Orde Wingate

 It is because I am what I
am, objectionable though
that appears to my critics,
that I win battles.
Orde Wingate

Born  to a religious Christian family and a firm believer in the Bible, Orde Wingate passionately embraced the prophetic vision of Jewish redemption and the Jews' ultimate return to Eretz Yisrael. During his service in Eretz Yisrael, he worked to help realize that ideal.

The son of a British officer, Wingate was born in India, received a military education, and was commissioned in 1923. He served in India and then in the Sudan, where he studied Arabic and Semitics, and acquired a familiarity with the Middle East. Wingate was recognized as a talented officer, and by 1936 he had earned the rank of captain. That same year he was transferred to Eretz Yisrael, and served there for the next three years.

Wingate arrived in Eretz Yisrael as an intelligence officer at a time when small bands of Arab rioters were regularly attacking both the British and the Jews. To counter this offensive, Wingate organized and trained Special Night Squads, comprised primarily of Haganah fighters, which were successfully employed throughout the Yishuv. Their tactics were based on the strategic principles of surprise, mobility, and night attacks, and they served effectively both as defensive and offensive units, successfully pre-empting and resisting Arab attacks.

Wingate maintained good contacts with the heads of the Yishuv and the Haganah. He learned Hebrew, and he demonstrated his ardent belief that the Jews were entitled to their homeland in Eretz Yisrael. He also recognized the need for a working military force, and he dreamed of heading the army of the future Jewish state. Because of his efforts and support, he was called in the Yishuv ha-yedid, the friend.

Wingate's intense support for the Zionist viewpoint, however, was controversial, and in 1939 the British succumbed to Arab pressure and transferred Wingate from Eretz Yisrael. His passport was stamped with the restriction that he not be allowed to re-enter the country. His personal involvement with the Zionist cause was thus curtailed, but many of those he trained became heads of the Palmach and, later, the Israel Defense Forces

Wingate returned briefly to Great Britain, but, recognized for his military talent, he was transferred to further active duty. In 1941 he led the force in Ethiopia against the Italians and was a major figure in liberating the country. He then worked in Burma, organizing and training the Chindits, a special jungle unit that operated behind Japanese lines. Wingate was killed in an airplane crash in Burma in 1944, and is buried in Arlington National Cemetery in Virginia.

Wingate's friendship for the Yishuv and his contributions to its defense have been recognized through the several places in Israel named for him, including the College of Physical Education near Netanya.