"Brit-Am Now"-241

May 7, 2003
1. Physical Recognition of Israelites
2. The Arabian Horse Came from the Stables of King Solomon!

1. Physical Recognition of Israelites
From: lyusya marakutza
Subject: about your Web site Brit-Am
Dear Yair,
Just by the lucky chance I'd found your WEB site.
Should I say, I received such please reading few pages about Jewish tribes?
Like many people born in Russia, I can recognized a Jew on a street from 20
paces, sometimes from behind, by racial and ethnic features.  Racial
features are pretty common for many Mediterranean people.  To my surprise,
I found the same racial and ethnic Jewish features in Irish and people from
the United Kingdom.  Only, by reading your WEB site, I understood the
reason.  I also could see those features in some French, Greek and
Italians, but may be because they also Mediterranean people.
I hope, you will finish your work and let us know about the other tribes.
Semitically Yours,


2. The Arabian Horse Came from the Stables of King Solomon!

Question: At 18:23 05/05/2003 -0700, Yair Davidiy wrote:
"I  understood that in the Steppe areas north of the Caucasus it was well
after 700 BCE that the nomadic lifestyle based on horses became prevalent."

Where or where did you come up with this?  My reading tells me that the
horse dominated nomadic lifestyle in the steppes goes back to at least the
5th millennium BC.  Or am I misreading here.

  Answer: It has indeed been claimed that the Indo-Europeans (whoever they
really were) were nomadic horse-riders from way back. Maybe. If they were
they somehow lost the ability later. Conventionally the horse-driven
chariot is understood to  have arisen in both Mesopotamia and Egypt about
2000 BCE and to have spread into Europe about 1000 BCE though even later
would be quite sufficient to co-ordinate with known findings.

Concerning the steppe areas of southern Europe and Eurasia (later known as
Scythia) please note the following quotation:

<<It is traditionally accepted that the economy of the Andronovo Culture
and the parallel in time Srubnaja Culture in Eastern Europe was based on
animal husbandry supplemented by some agriculture, hunting, fishing, and
gathering. Andronovo stockbreeding is similar to that of Eastern Europe
with regard to herd composition...
At the turn of the 2nd and 1st millennium B.C. the Andronovo Cultural
Family began to transform from the sedentary to nomadic mode of life
characterized by annual cyclical animal herding and shared a portable
material culture.>>

Regarding your question about the horse dominated nomadic lifestyle in the
steppes you will see that the date given above "At the turn of the 2nd and
1st millennium B.C." is about 1000 BCE. Even this date however, if valid,
only refers to nomadic mode of life characterized by annual cyclical animal
herding. It does not necessarily include domination by horse-riding
elements. The Andronovo Culture is a general term for different groups who
existed in what became Scythia before the Scythians. The Andronovo Culture
represents the transition from sedentary practices to herd-keeping. The
first horses kept in the steppes were small animals raised for meat, milk,
and as an alternative perhaps for the donkey. Horse-riding and
chariot-driving nomads Scythians from the Assyrian Empire conquered Scythia
and Halstatt Europe after 700 BCE. In Scythia they subjugated the local
peoples who included bearers of the Andronovo culture. This culture merged
with that of the Scythians and gave rise to the Sarmatians who included
both Scythian and local groups. In Europe related horse-riding,
chariot-driving conquerors gave rise to Celtic culture.

             Only when the Scythians came to Scythia did horse-riding
nomadism became viable. The Scythians introduced improved riding practices
and the Arabian (Israelite) horse that they crossed with the local variety.
This is the key not only to Scythian history but also that of Europe.
Yehonatan David White is an expert on the history of horses. He explained
to me (verbally) that the so-called Arabian horse according to Beduin
Arabian tradition was developed in the stables of King Solomon. Historical
indications are that this tradition is correct. Most horses today are a
combination of several elements. The Arabian horse is built to carry a
human being. It is intelligent and swift but lacking somewhat in strength,
can be overly-sensitive to its environment and can be difficult to control.
Together with that there is a school of thought that says that all modern
horses have something of the "Arabian" strain in them. The addition of
the  Arabians train to the Scythian breed is what may have made the
Scythian horse-riding rulership of Scythia possible.

Adapted from "Lost Israelite Origins" by Yair Davidiy:


             Israelite association with cavalry and chariotry had perhaps
been initiated by King Solomon.
             King Solomon of Israel had kept "Forty thousand stalls of
horses for his chariots and twelve thousand horsemen" (1-Kings 4;26).
A verse in 1-Kings 10;28 may be translated :
             "The source of Solomon's horses was from Mitsrayim[1] [i.e.
Musasir] and from Que, the merchants of the king would take them from Que
at a price"*16.

             "Mitsrayim" was a term that may have been applicable to an
area north of Israel as well as to Egypt. The Assyrians also referred to
BOTH Egypt in the south and an area to the north of them as "Mutsri" which
term is generally taken to be translatable as Egypt and as equivalent to
the Hebrew word for Egypt, "Mitsrayim". "MUTSRI"  is the name given to the
area of MUSASIR in Mannae. This area was the source of Assyrian cavalry
horses and the place where these horses were taken to be trained. Similarly
"QUE" refers to the geographical area of Cilicia in southeast Turkey, known
as "Ku" or "Que".

             Even though Musasir was in Mannae it was a sacred centre for
the Kings of Urartu and maybe considered their place of origin.. The
Assyrians employed Urartians to train their cavalry horses and gave them
high ranks though lower than those given to Israelites from Samaria. The
cavalry horses were obtained from and trained in Mannae. In the light of
the implied Israelite connection with this area in the time of King Solomon
it is interesting to note that in the neo-Assyrian era which was mainly the
time after the Israelites had been exiled, stable buildings in eastern
Urartu conformed to a "uniform arrangement when compared to those that had
existed in the former land of Israel, i.e. they were of the same type as
the former Israelite ones and probably derived from the same source.

               Mannae was an area to which the Prophet Amos foresaw the
northern Israelites being exiled*21. It was also to become first a
Cimmerian centre, and  then a Scythian one.

Concerning the Israelites prior to their exile  it had been said,
             "..their land is also full of horses, neither is there any end
of their chariots" (Isaiah 2;7).
Hundreds of statuettes of  horsemen on their mounts have been found
throughout the area of Judah and are dated to ca 800-700 BCE which is just
around the period of the Northern Israelites being exiled or shortly before it.

The Messianic era was described as a time when,
             "I will cut off the chariot from Ephraim and the war-horse
from Judah, and the battle-bow shall be cut off.." (Zechariah 9;10).
  These and other similar verses correspond with other evidence indicating
Israelite proficiency in chariotry, cavalry, and archery.

               The Assyrians would systematically replenish their military
forces by absorbing cavalry and chariot units, archers, and specialised and
general auxiliary manpower from amongst Israelite, Syrian, and other exile
populations. Armored horsemen were first depicted by the Assyrians in the
reign of Tiglathpileser-iii and they were shown as Aramaeans (i.e. Syrians
or Israelites) using Assyrian equipment [3].

             Correspondence between Tiglathpileser and one of his officials
near Tyre shows that the exiles were expected to  serve in the Assyrian

             Sargon besieged and took Samaria in Israel. In an
inscription  Sargon says, that he took 50 chariots and 27,000 plus people
for his own (military) use and the rest he settled in Assyria. Later, a
general in Sargon's forces was named "Hilkiyahu" which is a Hebrew name7.
In Nineveh (one of the Assyrian capitals) have been discovered lists of
cavalry units from Israelite Samaria and other records of charioteers
bearing Israelite names8. Archaeological evidence demonstrates that,
"Sargon also employed large numbers of men from central Syria and
Palestine"9: "Central Syria and Palestine" in effect, meant the former
Israelite area. Important groups of auxiliary soldiers identified as
Aramaeans from west of the Euphrates may also have included soldiers of
Israelite descent: Israelite Tribes had once controlled all of the area
west of the Euphrates. In regions adjacent to the west bank of the
Euphrates Ptolemy recorded Israelite Tribal and Clan names, and evidence
exists suggesting that Israelites in these areas spoke Aramaic.
Non-Assyrian soldiers in various stages of assimilation to Assyrian norms
formed the bulk of the Assyrian army and amongst these non-Assyrians
Israelite exiles were prominent..

             A list has been found containing "the names of many, perhaps
most, of the top officials and the equestrian officers in Sargon's army"11.
The list is divided into two sections, " one consisting of units from
cities of Assyria proper "12, and a second section considered to be that of
the "royal army"13 and presumed to have been more important. This second
more-important section is a listing of officers and it is divided into
seven units. One of these seven units consists of Chaldeans, a second unit
is that of 13 equestrian officers from Israelite Samaria. The nationality
of the remaining five units is not given and amongst these may also have
been Israelites. The commander of the known Israelite Samarian unit has the
same rank as King Sargon's twin brother and was considered about the
seventh most important man in the kingdom14. A horsetrainer (or
horsebreeder) who was also a military commander from former Israelite
Samaria named Sama seems to have become a friend and advisor of the
Assyrian king, Sargon. Later Sama was made the equestrian instructor of one
of the sons of Sennacherib, the successor of Sargon15. The equestrian
forces consisted of chariotry and cavalry. It is assumed that the
Israelites concentrated on chariotry which at first had been considered
more important. Improvements in horse equipment, however, increased cavalry
efficiency. These improvements first become evident just after most of the
Israelites had been exiled. It is uncertain whether the Hebrews were
responsible for the new equestrian developments which are considered to be
characteristic of the Cimmerians who also appeared around this same time
(or shortly afterwards) and whom other factors link with Israel. The best
horses, researchers say, for chariotry were obtained from Nubia (Sudan)
whereas the best cavalry horses came from Mannae and were obtained and
trained by Urartian intermediaries. Mannae was a centre of Israelite

             Before Sargon's time Assyrian cavalry had operated in pairs,
i.e. two riders were depicted side by side, one ("a squire" dressed like an
Armaean) to hold the reins of the other ("a warrior" dressed like an
Assyrian) who did the actual fighting. From Sargon's reign new types of
horse-bit were introduced and a new system of reigning freed both hands and
enabled each cavalry horseman to fight independently22. This development
has been associated with the Cimmerian-Scythians and shortly afterwards the
new horse-gear appears in areas of Cimmerian conquest in Europe.. After
Sargon came Sennacherib.

             Sennacherib recorded having exiled more than 200,000 people
from Judah. The Bible mentions him having captured all of the unfenced
cities in Judah and Midrashim also speak of Sennacherib deporting vast
numbers from Judah and Simeon. These exiles joined the deported Tribes of
northern Israel and shared their destiny. One of the cities of Judah
captured by Sennacherib was Lachish on the border between Judah and
Phillistia. Assyrian bas-relief illustrations show the siege of Lachish and
its people being taken into exile. They also illustrate the peculiar
uniforms of the Judaean soldiers defending Lachish. Former Judaean soldiers
from Lachish, "were enlisted into the bodyguard of Sennacherib, where they
were allowed to wear their own uniform", i.e. they wore the same (or almost
the same) uniform as when they fought for Judah and are therefore still
recognisable. They comprised "presumably the earliest example in history of
a Jewish regiment"26. After Sennacherib's death a revolt took place and the
palace was burnt. The depicted face of king Sennacherib in the relief was
virtually destroyed. Since the face of Sennacherib alone was mutilated in
this way, the researcher R.D. Barnett suggests that the mutineers were
Judaeans, one-time Jewish soldiers from Lachish and afterwards probably
members of the former king's bodyguard..

             The destiny and fate of the soldiers from Lachish is
symptomatic on a small scale of what was to happen to the northern
Israelites on a larger one: Just as Judaeans from Lachish in their place of
exile were made the bodyguard of the monarch and later revolted and burnt
the palace, so too the northern Israelites were to occupy an important
position in the Assyrian forces which must have facilitated the eventual
takeover (by Israelite Scythians) of the whole Assyrian Empire.

             After Sennacherib (705-681 b.c.e.) came Essarhaddon (681-669)
and after him Assurbanipal (669- 663).

             Amongst those forming the bodyguard of Assurbanipal, is
depicted a spearman uniformed like an Israelite or Syrian. During the reign
of Assurbanipal the Israelite Scythians were destined to eventually take
control of the Assyrian Empire. An Israelite presence in the Assyrian armed
forces most likely would have been connected to this event and also the
assumption of virtual independence by the exiled Israelites that led up to it.

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