"Brit-Am Now"-315
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2. Brit-Am Publications in Australia and New Zealand
3. Biblical Proof no 40. The Name Hebrew
4. Hebrew Celtic Namesakes no.6: The Hebrew Celts


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3. Biblical Proof no 40. The Name Hebrew
Abraham was a Hebrew:


             The Book of Jonah relates how God told Jonah to go to the
major Assyrian city of Nineveh and there prophesy that after 40 days it
would be overturned. This meant according to the understanding of Jonah
that Nineveh would be destroyed. Jonah did not want to go on this mission
and attempted to flee to Tarshish in Spain.  A storm arose at sea and the
sailors of his ship realized that a supernatural power was causing it. They
threw lots and the result fell on Jonah. Jonah told the seamen to cast him


             Here we have the name Hebrew connected with worship of the God
of Israel as if the two were mutually relevant to each other.  Jonah was a
Hebrew going to Tarshish in Spain. Israelites from the Ten Tribes were
later exiled to Spain. They were known as Iberi, or as Hiberi  i.e. as
Hebrews. From Spain the Hiberi (Hebrews) moved onwards into Gaul and the
British Isles. The Celtic inhabitants of Britain were all referred to as
Iberi, or Hiberi, or Iberni (meaning Hebrews) by themselves and by others
(such as Ptolemy) and the name Iberi (i.e. Hebrew) very frequently occurs
in ethnic and place-names of the Western Celtic peoples. Hibernian  still
means Irish. The Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal) was named after the
Iberi  Hebrews who once dwelt there but later left moving to Gaul and Britain.
             The crew in Jonah's ship made another futile attempt to
continue against the storm after which they reluctantly threw Jonah into
the sea. A fish (whale or other sea-creature) swallowed Jonah and after
three days spew him out onto the shore. He went to Nineveh and prophesied
and the people did penitence and were forgiven and no disaster occurred (at
that time) to the city.

         Incidentally the peoples who later came westward from Scythia and
Germania and who were also Israelites were referred to by the Romans as
Barbari. This term is generally taken to be a negative expression meaning
that they were barbarians and uncivilized in Roman eyes. Nevertheless the
term according to some originally had ethnic connotations. The Hebrews in
the Ancient Middle East (according to the Encyclopedia Judaica) were known
as Iberi and as Barbari.
There is an interesting article at
(Victor Mair PART II ---THE IBERI CONNECTION) concerning the name Iberi
(Hebrew) in ancient times.
We do not necessarily agree with this article but for those who want more
background information concerning this name it is worth reading.

Concerning the root Iberi amongst the Celts see the next entry, "Celtic

4. Hebrew Celtic Namesakes no.6: The Hebrew Celts


             Amongst Celtic names of importance was that of "EBER" (meaning
Hebrew) examples of which are found spread throughout the Celtic world. The
Celtic settlers of Britain and Ireland referred to themselves as "Hiberi"
or "Iberi" as may be seen in from the  Geography of PTOLEMY and from Irish

             EBER: In the country of the Parissi was the city of York
called Eboracum by the British, Ireland was called Hibernia, and there were
the Hebrides Islands and numerous places in Gaul and other Celtic areas
whose names contained the root "eber" meaning Hebrew.

In addition,

             "...there were twenty or more places in Wales, the names of
which begin with another form of the name Eber Aber such as Aberystwyth and
Aberdare. In Scotland we find Aberdeen, Aberfoyle, Aberdour, Aberargie,
Abruthven  and several others" Bennett p.114.

              Celtic Mythology and toponomy is replete with Hebraic names
many of which were recorded long before the Christian era when the Celts
were still pagans and therefore cannot be ascribed to extraneous influences:

             The Iberi (Hiberi) had once been in Spain and due to them the
North African natives who invaded Spain after them and drove them out were
in turn called Iberi (Iberians) by the Greeks and Romans.

             An additional proof for ascribing the original application of
the name HEBERto the Celts is the fact that Celtic peoples such as the
Gaelics of Britain and Ireland called themselves Iberi. These people had
been in Spain at the time when the name Heber or Iber was first applied to
regions and rivers there and they had been driven out to Gaul and the
British Isles where numerous additional place and ethnic names received the
appellation HEBER and its cognates. This name is considered typically
Celtic and an indication of Celtic presence (de Rougemont p.102, Hubert p.288).

Later application of the term Iberianto the Spaniards is a misnomer.

             Names containing the root "HEBER" meaning Hebrew are found
throughout the Celtic sphere of influence especially in its western section
of Gaul and Britain:

              Examples of place names containing this root in places
somehow or other regarded as those of a sometime Celtic presence are
multitudinous and include Yboracum the original name of York, Hibernia the
name of Ireland, the Hebrides, and numerous others, see below.

             The denomination "HEBREW" as applicable to ISRAELITE in
distinction to foreigners is found in the Book of Jonah: Jonah the prophet
had been commanded by God to go and call upon the inhabitants of the
Assyrian capital city Nineveh to repent. Jonah did not want to help the
Assyrians so he attempted to flee the Holy Land which place is most
conducive to Prophecy, whereas outside of the Land the Divine Presence
makes Itself less palpable. He went to the port of Jaffo on the coast and
took a ship headed for Tarshish. A supernatural storm arose and after
casting lots the sailors realised that their ship was endangered due to
Jonah's presence. The men of the ship asked Jonah:
             "Whence comest thou? what is thy country and of what people
art thou" (Jonah 1;8).
Jonah answered:
"Hebrew" in the Bible is synonymous with Israelite.
             There were Twelve Israelite Tribes and Welsh tradition listed
Twelve different peoples who invaded Britain. Representatives of all the
Israelite Tribes do seem to have settled within the British Isles though
the dominating elements belonged to the Tribes of Joseph, Ephraim and
Manasseh and eventually especially of Ephraim since much of Manasseh later
emigrated to North America.

In Celtic sources  many names are  similar to Hebrew ones.
Examples of Celtic names (with suggested Hebrew equivalents in brackets) are:

Semoni (Simeon), Nemed (i.e. "Separated" equals "Peresh" in Hebrew), Macha
(Maacha), Galedon (Gilead), Iar (Yair), Dana (Dan), Don (Dan), Balor
(Baal), Bile (Baal), Briga (Beriah), Oriel (Oriel), Etain (Aitan), Manaanan
(Manoah), Gall (Gil, Galil), Tara (Atara), Aesus (Esau = Phoenecian Esus),
Bochra (Becher), Lamech (Lamech), Britan (Brit), lnbual (Anbel, Inbel),
Icen (Jachin), Isac (Isaac), Tamar (Tamar), Isc (Isaac), Isaca (Isaac),
Conn (Canaan).

Another name of significance in our study is "Hyperborean" meaning
"Northern Hebrew" and this appellation was applied to the Celts of Britain.
Celtic Names from the root Iber  meaning Hebrew:

Ybora: mouth of Halys River in Anatolia (Turkey), place of a  Galatian colony.

Hebros River: in Thrace, scene of Celtic presence.

Iberia: in the Caucasus, north of Assyria, legendary area of exiled
Israelite Ten Tribes re settlement, cultural connections with the proto-Celts.

Ibernia: name for Spain derived from the original Iberians who accepted
Celtic culture and migrated to the west and north.

Hibernia: name for Ireland.

Iberni in southwest Ireland.

Ibnerni Ocean east of Ireland.

Hebrides: islands off the northwest coast of Scotland, a Celtic
region.  Menasseh ben Israel spoke of an early Hebrew inscription having
been discovered on the Hebrides.

Eboracum: A Celtic name for the city of York in north England. York gave
its name to the North American city of New York where there are reportedly
more people of Jewish extraction (mainly from the tribe of Judah) than in
the modern State of Israel!

Eburodunum: also known as Embrun in the French Alps of ancient Gaul.

Evorolocum: in Auvergne, Gaul.

Eborobritum: Beira, Gaul, note the combination of Brit (Briton) with EBER.

Eborovices: Evreux, in Gaul

Eborobriga: Yonne, in Gaul.

Eboromagus: (in the region of Aude, in Gaul) also known as "Hebromagus" and
close to Narbonne in southern France an historically significant center in
many ways.

Eborodunum: Yverdon, in Switzerland, once dominated by the Celtic Tribe of

Eboresheim, Eporestal, Eburingen: all Celtic place names in Germany. The
Galatian Celts were once based in west central Germany but were driven out.
Note the Semitic interchange of "p" for "b" as in Eporestal.

Eburones: a Celtic people who once dwelt between the Main and Rhine rivers.

[The Heber root name examples above have been culled from: de Rougemont
p.102, Hubert-2 p.125, Markale p.308.]

Some Sources

BENNET, W. H. Symbols of Our Celto-Saxon Heritage.England, 1976

DE ROUGEMONT, FREDERIC. "L'Age de Bronze, ou Les Semites en Occident",
Paris, 1866.

HUBERT, HENRI. "The Rise Of The Celt", trans. By M.R. Dodrie, London 1934.

HUBERT, HENRI. "The Greatness And Decline Of The Celts". London 1934.

MARKALE, J. "Les Celts", Paris, 1970.

MARKALE, J. "Celtic Civilisation", Paris, 1970, trans.1978.

  5. The Chinese in US before Columbus?

Brit-Am Note: From our perspective whether or not the Chinese did sail all
over the place at one stage
may be of interest but it is not directly petinent to our subject matter.
What is important is that these studies
incidentally indicate that the Western and Ancient World (including the
Phoenicians and Hebrews) may well have also
been acquainted with America, Australia, and so on. This is of some
significance for us.
Extracts Only


The Year China Discovered the World

By Gavin Menzies

Publisher: Bantam Press, 520 pages

IN this 520-page best-seller, 1421: The Year China Discovered the World,
Gavin Menzies, a British ex-submarine commander turned-historian, attempts
to rewrite some 500 years of accepted world history.

He puts forward a new theory that 15th century Chinese Admiral Zheng Hes
fleet of 100 gigantic ships beat Christopher Columbus to America by 72
years and circumnavigated the globe a century before Ferdinand Magellan.
This is what is known to historians as alternative history.

Menzies claims further that Zheng Hes ships explored the coasts of west
Africa, South America and North America, Australia and Antartica. They even
sailed into the Caribbean and went up as far as California. On the east
coast of North America the ships sailed up to Rhode Island and even to
Greenland, sometimes planting Chinese colonies along the way.

The theory is backed up with four types of evidence:

1) several Chinese star charts and maps and those used by European
explorers (including Columbus) when they started their voyages decades later;

2) ancient Chinese artefacts, such as lighthouses and lacquerware, and
flora and fauna (maize, Chinese roses, coconuts and sweet potatoes) that
were allegedly transported by the Chinese to and from North and South
America and some Atlantic islands;

3) remains of wrecks of gigantic Chinese ships allegedly found in Australia
and the Caribbean and ancient Chinese anchors in California; and

4) cultural, social and even possible DNAlinks between Chinese and American
Indians in California, Rhode Island and other communities in South America,
and the aborigines in Australia.

Based on 14 years of investigations, Menziestheory has caused a stir among
historians, many of whom, however, are not convinced by him. A few
individuals have described him as a fantasist and the writer of a
historical novel. There is even a web-site debunking his theory. Skepticism
has been raised over his research methods and lack of sufficient supporting
evidence. Even in Beijing a few Chinese historians demurred.

Menzies relies heavily on several 15th century European charts and maps to
trace the Chinese journeys, in the belief that these must have been derived
from earlier Chinese expeditions. Repeatedly he asserts that Vasco da Gama,
Magellan, Columbus and the European explorers of the New World were
carrying copies of Chinese maps.

These maps and charts, he claims, must have come from Chinese charts that
somehow had found their way to Venice as early as in 1428 and then to

This is the most controversial part of Menziesnew theory. Unfortunately, he
provides no proof to link these European and Chinese charts and maps with
one another. None of the European charts and maps ever mentions Chinese
influence, either.

What he does establish is that a 1428 Portuguese chart, which shows Africa,
Australia, South America and various islands, is drawn in remarkably
accurate detail. It even shows the Cape of Good Hope, which the Portuguese
did not sail around until the end of the 15th century.

Aboriginal legends and cave carvings depicting foreigners arriving by ships
in white garments, the groups of mysterious stone buildings and the votive
offerings, according to Menzies, produce powerful if not yet conclusive
evidence that a large Chinese fleet visited southeast Australia in the 15th

What Menzies has presented are some interesting gems such as that Columbus
and Magellan were really not the first European explorers to have gone to
the Caribbean or South America. His close examination of the 1428 and 1495
Portuguese maps and charts shows that earlier Portuguese seamen (whose
names are unknown) had been there before them. He also establishes
convincingly that Puerto Rico had already been a Portuguese colony by 1440,
some 52 years before Columbus set sail for the New World.

His study of Chinese global voyaging has provided us with new insights on
the ancient shipwrecks found off the coasts of North and South America and
off Australia and New Zealand. They present challenges to archaeologists
and historians to answer the questions that he has raised.


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