January 4, 2004
1. Phoenicians in Britain
2. Biblical Proofs No. 115 Lion and Unicorn
3. Romans wiped out Scots tribes
1. Phoenicians in Britain
In our study of Joshua chapter 19 we mentioned the presence of people from
the Tribe of Asher
in Britain together with the Phoenicians and the importance of the tin trade.
In this connection the following may be of interest:
Michael Smith on another list reports:
In a 1935 school textbook "Foreign Lands And Peoples" by J. Russell Smith
(California State Series):
"A block of tin tells a tale. A few years ago some men were digging a
foundation for a building in a city on the south coast of England. The
earth was very soft, so they dug down and down to find a firm
foundation. After going down for many feet, they came to something that
seemed like a floor of strong oak planks. It was the deck of an old
ship. The place where the city stood had once been a harbor. The ship had
sunk in the harbor, and the harbor had been filled by mud brought by
streams. The men cut through the deck of the sunken ship and found that
the ship was still loaded with blocks of tin.
The writing on the blocks of tin in the old ship buried beneath
the English city showed that it was a Phoenician ship......Ships sailed
from Phoenicia to trade with many countries along the shores of the
Mediterranean. They even went out into the Atlantic and up to England to
get tin; this trade in tin from Britain was one of the early trades of the
also, from the 1967 World Book Encyclopedia: "Phoenician traders carried
their goods far and wide in ancient Europe. They traded cloth and costly
goods for tin and other goods from southwestern England......Some
scholars believe that the Phoenicians may have sailed as far as Cornwall,
in southwestern Britain, and worked the tin mines there."
2. Biblical Proofs No. 115 Lion and Unicorn
The Lion and Unicorn were representative of Israel in its aspect of power
in the End Times. The lion and unicorn are on the coat of arms officially
Bilaam the heathen prophet foresaw that in the End Times the descendants of
Israel would be very powerful. He likened them to a lion and a raem or
<<GOD BROUGHT THEM OUT OF EGYPT; HE HATH AS IT WERE THE STRENGTH OF AN
<<SURELY THERE IS NO ENCHANTMENT AGAINST JACOB, NEITHER IS THERE ANY
DIVINATION AGAINST ISRAEL: ACCORDING TO THIS TIME IT SHALL BE SAID OF JACOB
AND OF ISRAEL, WHAT HATH GOD WROUGHT!
<<BEHOLD, THE PEOPLE SHALL RISE UP AS A GREAT LION, AND LIFT UP HIMSELF AS
A YOUNG LION: HE SHALL NOT LIE DOWN UNTIL HE EAT OF THE PREY, AND DRINK THE
BLOOD OF THE SLAIN>> [Numbers 23:22-24].
The symbols of Scotland had two unicorns and that of the United Kingdom of
Great Britain had a lion and a unicorn.
The Midrash (Numbers Rabah) says that the raem (unicorn) was the symbol of
MANASSEH. In our passage Israel is likened to a unicorn. Only in Britain
does the unicorn appear as a national symbol. On the other hand the
unicorn came to Britain from Scotland which is still represented by two
unicorns. More than 80% of the founding settlers of the USA came from
Scotland and related areas in the North and West of Britain.
How Many Horns Did the Unicorn Have?
<<HIS HORNS ARE LIKE THE HORNS OF UNICORNS>> [Deuteronomy 33:17]. This
phrase in the Hebrew says, Karnei [the Horns of] Raem [a unicorn] Karnov
[are his horns]. The expression in the Hebrew can in effect be understood
to say that the raem (unicorn) has more than one horn. Rabbinical
Commentators however (and the King James Translation after them) chose to
interpret it as consistent with the Raem having only one horn. In this
their opinion was consistent with that of the major Rabbinical
Commentators. There is in fact a Biblical verse that could justify this view:
<<HE HATH AS IT WERE THE STRENGTH [Hebrew: TOYAFOTH] OF AN
UNICORN>> [Numbers 23:22].
The word translated above from the Hebrew as strength is TOYAFOTH and
literally means that which he is exalted by (lifted up) and appears to be
referring to the horns. This word is spelt one way and traditionally
pronounced another. It is spelt in the singular and pronounced in the
plural. The expression of strength (Toyafoth), meaning the horns which are
normally plural, in this case have become ONE [TOYAFATH: in the singular
instead of TOYAFOTH in the plural]. Perhaps it is an animal that in some
cases has one horn and in other cases has two?
The Classical Opinion
Rabbi David Kimchi (Safer HaShorashim, RAEM): <<HIS HORNS ARE LIKE THE
HORNS OF UNICORNS (Deuteronomy 33:17). It is intended to mean that his
horns are like the horns of (several) unicorns for the Raem has only one
horn. [Psalms 29:6] HE MAKETH THEM ALSO TO SKIP LIKE A CALF; LEBANON AND
SIRION LIKE A YOUNG UNICORN. [Psalms 22:21] SAVE ME FROM THE LION'S MOUTH:
FOR THOU HAST HEARD ME FROM THE HORNS OF THE UNICORNS & A wild beast of the
wilderness, extremely strong.>>
The Greek Translation of the Bible (Septuagent) translates Ream (Numbers
23:22) as monoceros i.e. one-horned. Saadia, Yehudah HaLevi, and Ibn Ezra
also considered the "Reem" to be a unicorn (see Kaplan in the "Living
Torah"), as did Menasseh ben Israel.
Did the Unicorn Exist? In our magazine Brit-Am Truth no.7 there is an
article discussing this question in depth. There were animals with one horn
such as the narwal (a small whale with a long horn); the sakea a kind of
goat like deer depicted by the Assyrians, in some opinions it was a
mythical animal (THE ARAB FRINGE. AN ENQUIRY CONCERNING Mutsri, KUSH,
MELUHHA AND MAGAN by Michael Banyai
http://www.abara2.de/chronologie/fringe.php); The Prehistoric
Elasmotherium: "This was a gigantic rhinoceros the size of an elephant,
with a horn that may have measured up to six feet long. Unlike the
contemporary rhinoceros, the horn of the elasmotherium was situated on its
forehead rather than on its nose." (Mysterious Creatures. Intriguing Torah
Enigmas of Natural and Unnatural History, Nosson Slifkin, Israel, 2003
p.62). This animal was reportedly extinct long before the age of man, but
The auroch which was a gigantic wild bull of immense strength and only
recently extinct has also been suggested.
It does not really matter. The point is that whatever the ream originally
was it became identified with the unicorn and this together with the lion
really were used as symbols of Britain.
3. Romans wiped out Scots tribes
STEPHEN STEWART December 31 2003
THE Monty Python team famously once asked what the Romans had ever done for
civilisation and then reeled off a list of the empire's great achievements.
But along with roads, viniculture, acquaducts, and education, new research
has unearthed evidence that the legions may have caused such widespread
devastation in Scotland that some areas took centuries to recover.
Archaeologists investigating one of the largest campaign camps in Britain
have suggested that the military might of Rome may have drastically reduced
the numbers of the indigenous people, leaving large swaths of the country
empty for hundreds of years.
Excavations at Kintore in Aberdeenshire have revealed that the occupation
lasting between the first and third centuries AD was followed by a hiatus
of site activity for more than 300 to 400 years.
The findings also hint that the legions may have brought vast stores of
treasure from Europe in an attempt to bribe unruly local tribes.
Murray Cook, senior project officer for AOC Archaeology, who led the
investigation, said: "One of the most interesting things is the fact that
this settlement had a serious impact on the population.
"There may have been a folk memory of the invading army making people
reluctant to stay in that area. It could have been thought taboo to stay in
that area because of its association with an invading army.
"It also may be that the population was decimated. We have to remember this
was a conquering army.
"We know the site had a negative impact because there is no evidence of it
being occupied for about 400 years. We don't have evidence of burnt houses
or anything like that but there is no gap before (the Roman occupation) and
then a run of activity for 600 years after the big gap left by the Romans."
A number of intriguing artifacts and buildings were also discovered in the
recent dig, including a beaker decorated with crushed bone and a sequence
of 30 roundhouses from 1500BC to AD100 where the entrances move in
anti-clockwise directions over time.
One of the most fascinating finds was a Roman casket, the first of its kind
to be found in Britain. Archaeologists think it may have carried a vast
bribe to pay off local tribal leaders.
Work at the site is taking place ahead of the construction of a new primary
school and has been commissioned by Aberdeenshire Council. The current work
covers around three hectares.
In 2002, analysis of Roman army latrines and remains of keyhole-shaped
ovens at the site revealed that the Roman legions went to war on pizza.
The Kintore camp would have been home to several thousand men and was on
the line of the Roman advance into north-east Scotland.
It is thought the Kintore troops may have been a staging post for troops
heading for Mons Graupius in AD84 where they won a bloody victory over
In AD 83, the Caledonian tribes faced invasion and according to Tacitus,
the Roman historian, "turned to armed resistance on a large scale",
attacking Roman forts and their legions.
Agricola, the Roman governor, advanced into the Caledonians' stronghold in
the north-east in the summer of AD 84, resulting in the battle of Mons
Around 10,000 Caledonians were slaughtered and the next day Tacitus wrote
"& an awful silence reigned on every hand; the hills were deserted, houses
smoking in the distance, and our scouts did not meet a soul".
Ptolemy, in his Geography, said the Caledonians (Caledonii) were one of
several tribes beyond the Forth-Clyde line.
Tacitus recorded the name of just one Caledonian tribe, the Boresti, and
said that: "The red hair and large limbs of the inhabitants of Caledonia
point clearly to a German origin."
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