"Brit-Am Now"-57

Date: 07/19/2002 2:19:55 AM Central Daylight Time

"Brit-Am Now"-57
1. New Group? Not us.
2. Floods Swept Ancient Nile Cities Away
3. Ireland's Past Is True Gold—and More
4. Copies of "Lost Israelite identity" still available
5. Dan no.2 Dan in Northern Syria: Laish-Leshem
6. New Book. Support Requested
7.The Identity of Menasseh with the USA.
8. Place-Names in the USA

1. New Group? Not us.

At 02:05 19/07/2002 +0000, R wrote:
>Shalom Yair, someone wrote to me stating that he was
>making a new yahoo group named "". This person
>stated he obtained my e-mail from your list,
>I don't
>have a problem with that, just tell me if this group is
>okay to join. Blessings, R.

Answer from Yair Davidiy:
I  did not give names on the  list to anyone. In the past we sent out
letters with the addresses still on them but we have stopped that.
Also two or three times in the past by mistake I sent out messages that
revealed list names.
We have since learned (I hope) to be more careful.
I do not know of the group you mentioned.  I am not saying that anything is
wrong with it just that I do not know it.
  In principle our policy at the moment is that we do not give out list
names to anyone, not even to friends and supporters.
The only messages from us are those sent from our address.

Floods Swept Ancient Nile Cities Away, Expert Says

By Hillary Mayell
for National Geographic News
October 17, 2001

Two cities that lay at the edge of the Mediterranean more than 1,200 years
ago, Herakleion and Eastern Canopus, disappeared suddenly, swallowed by the
sea. Now, an international team of scientists may have figured out the
mystery of why it happened.

The researchers have concluded that the two cities collapsed when the land
they were built on suddenly liquefied.
The cities of Herakleion and Eastern Canopus lay at the edge of the
Mediterranean more than 1,200 years ago, but disappeared suddenly when they
were swallowed by the sea. Scientists say it occurred because the land on
which the cities were built liquefied.

Until recently, the only evidence that they existed came from Greek
mythology and the writings of ancient historians. Then, during expeditions
in 1999 and 2000, a team of French marine archaeologists headed by Franck
Goddio found the ruins—almost completely intact—buried on the seafloor of
the Abu Qir Bay in Egypt.

Gateways to Egypt

Herakleion and East Canopus once stood at the mouth of the now-extinct
Canopic branch of the Nile. Built sometime between the seventh and sixth
centuries B.C., as the days of the Egyptian Pharaohs were coming to an end,
the cities flourished as gateways to Egypt.

Herakleion was a port of entry to Egypt that grew wealthy collecting taxes
on goods being shipped upriver.

Frozen in time below the waters were many temples and statues of gods and
goddesses, also attesting to the cities' role as destinations for religious

Until the undersea discovery, historians knew about the cities only through
myth and ancient literature. Menelaus, the king of Sparta and husband to
Helen, over whom the Trojan War was fought, was said to have stayed in
Herakleion following the ten-year war against Troy.

Greek mythology holds that the city of Canopus was named after Menelaus'
helmsman, who was bitten by a viper and transformed into a god.

The Greek historian Herodotus wrote of having visited the cities in 450 B.C.

The cities' fortunes declined when Alexander the Great founded Alexandria
in 331 B.C. Yet centuries later, Greek geographer Strabo (63 B.C.-A.D. 21)
described the location and wealth of Herakleion, while Seneca (5 B.C.-A.D.
65) condemned the cities for decadent and corrupt lifestyles.

The cities disappeared mysteriously sometime during the eighth century A.D.

Ireland's Past Is True Gold—and More
(Adapted Extracts Only)

Rebecca Shokrian
National Geographic News
March 15, 2002

Despite the intensive focus at this time of year on all things Irish, most
people know little about the long history of Ireland—a history that has
yielded a rich archaeological heritage.

The historic period in Ireland from St. Patrick to the present accounts for
less than one-sixth of the time that mankind has been on the island,

Numerous peoples, including the Celts, Vikings, and British, have inhabited
Ireland and left lasting marks on the country's culture and art. Many
well-preserved artifacts at the National Museum show the wide range of
these influences

Ancient Past

The shape and landscape of present-day Ireland—an island of 27,100 square
miles (70,200 square kilometers)—were formed  when Atlantic Ocean glaciers
slowly began their retreat. The event left the country rich with the soil
that has nurtured Ireland's flora and fauna for centuries, and which
offered a hospitable environment for migrating people to settle and plant

Some of the oldest existing Irish artifacts are megalithic tombs that date
back to the Stone Age. They were lined in stone and had passages that led
from the rim of a circular mound to a burial chamber at the center.

A number of factors have left these and many other ancient artifacts in a
fine state of preservation, Wallace noted.

"During the times of the Vikings, the tombs were ransacked. But because the
tombs were created prior to the Bronze or Iron Age, they did not hold much
booty, and eventually looters stopped" their pillaging, leaving many of the
artifacts for archaeologists to study, he said.

Many of the historic artifacts that survive today lay undisturbed—some in
pristine condition—for long periods because of limited land changes in
early Ireland.

Until the Vikings arrived in Ireland in A.D. 795, the economy centered on
cattle raising, which left the land widely undeveloped. Moreover, there
were no towns—and related land alterations—until the Vikings began building
towns, starting with Dublin in A.D. 840.

Bronze, Gold, Silver

The first metallurgists came to Ireland about 2200 B.C. looking for copper.
Exquisite metal work was not produced until 1200 B.C., however, when the
Bronze Age flourished.

Sheets of bronze and gold pieces were riveted and twisted into objects with
simple patterns of triangles and circles. Gold jewelry—necklaces,
bracelets, and earrings—were crafted for only the most elite members of

With the dawn of the Iron Age in 500 B.C., iron came to replace bronze as
the main material used for weapons and art. Some historians have speculated
that the Iron Age came to Ireland with the Celts, or keltoi.

One thing the Celts are known to have brought with them was a style of
angular and curvilinear patterns and a technique of "symbolizing animals
and humans in a thought instead of physically drawing them" said Wallace.

The next major influence in Ireland was the Vikings, whose impact lasted
almost 400 years. Beginning late in the eighth century, these Scandinavian
raiders plundered Ireland's precious metals and kidnapped its citizens for
the slave trade.

Their more positive impacts included the introduction of trade,
shipbuilding, and coinage. The increased urbanization of Ireland under the
Vikings basically changed the economy and way of life for the Gaelic people.

The presence of the Vikings has often been associated with the end of the
"golden age" of metal work and jewelry in Ireland. The Vikings brought with
them, however, a new metal used for such works, silver. About A.D. 900
silver was commonly used for brooches, which were produced in two distinct
styles—one that appealed to the Irish, the other to Viking wearers.

Other Influences

Another factor affecting the nature of national art and culture is that
Ireland "is more of a western European country than it is a northern
European country," said Wallace.

Unlike in continental Europe, the spread of the Roman Empire and its
lifestyle and values never reached Ireland. As a result, Irish culture and
civilization developed for long periods with little outside influences.

Ireland was affected by the Reformation in the 16th century, but not in the
same ways that the movement had an impact on continental European countries.

In England, Protestantism came to dominate state, church, and people; the
Irish remained devoutly Catholic, even though they did adopt some of the
principles of Reformation. Today, religion still has a deep influence on
daily life in Ireland.

© 2002 National Geographic Society.

4. Copies of "Lost Israelite identity" still available
Yair Davidiy has a few copies of  "Lost Israelite identity"  but many more
are available from
our friend in Holland, Mr. Gooitzen Van der Laan
Contact Goitzen at:

5. Dan no.2
(adapted from chapter six of "Lost Israelite Identity")

         The Book of Judges (chapter 18) relates how 600 men from Dan in
the south went north and found a place named Laish whose inhabitants lived
like Sidonian-Phoenicians. They conquered Laish, wiped out the inhabitants,
and renamed the place Dan.
         The Book of Joshua related a very similar account which should be
considered since we believe (contrary to most others) that an entirely
different situation is being discussed:

         "And the coast of the children of Dan went out [(too little)] for
them: therefore the children of Dan went up to fight against Leshem, and
took it, and smote it with the edge of the sword, and possessed it, and
dwelt therein, and called Leshem, Dan, after the name of Dan their father"
(Joshua 19;47).

         Both versions relate how the inheritance of the children of Dan in
the south was either too small for them (Joshua ch.18) or how they had not
taken possession of that which had been allocated to them (Judges ch.19).
Both tell how Danites went north seized a city, slew its inhabitants and
re-settled it naming it after DAN  their father.
         There are however several differences between the two
a. In the Book of Joshua the children of Dan had received an inheritance in
the south but it was insufficient for them and so they went to fight
against Leshem. In Judges though the Danites were in the region of Zorah
and Eshtaol (in the south) they had yet not taken possession of their own.

b. In Judges, at least at first, only six hundred went forth after
receiving the report of a reconnoitering mission: on the other hand, the
Book of  Joshua may be understood to say that all (or nearly all) of Dan
went to fight.

c. In the Book of Joshua the city taken is called Leshem: In Judges the
city is called LAISH. Some Commentators have tried to state that "Leshem"
and "Laish" are different forms of the same word but "leshem" in Hebrew is
a type of precious stone (maybe amber) while "laish" means a young male lion.

          As stated, most (IF NOT ALL) Commentators  have assumed that the
accounts in the Books of Joshua and Judges are relating to one and the same
event and that Leshem and Laish are variations of the same name.
Nevertheless, it now seems certain that LESHEM and LAISH were two different
         The place called Leshem and renamed Dan in the Book of Joshua
appears to be the site of DAN in northern Galilee otherwise known as
Daphne. On the other hand, LAISH which was also renamed DAN and is recalled
in the Book of Judges is identical with a centre which gave its name to
LUASH of the DANANU! LUASH adjoins Smal of Cilicia in modern southeast
Turkey. The distance on foot between the two locations, Leshem of Dan in
the northern Galilee and Luash of the Dananu in north Syria, is more than
three hundred miles!!
         The identification of Luash with Liash involves identifying the
Dananu who lived in or besides Luash with the Danites of Israelite Dan.
i.      The area hereby identified as that within which Liash-Dan is to be
found is that known in ancient times as the Kingdom(s) of Smal of the
Dananu and of Yadi and of Luash and Hamath. This encompassed the areas in
Ptolemy's Map (of Arabia Deserta and Syria) depicting Chalybonitis,
Cyrrestica, Commagena, Cilicia, and extending into Armenia Minor. To the
east and southeast of this region were the territories of Bathanaei and
Bathanaea Regio (i.e. Kingdom of Bathanaea) and Bathan is an Aramaic
("Syrian") pronounciation of BASHAN. Moses had blessed the Tribe of Dan
(Deuteronomy 33;22): "Dan is a lion's whelp, he shall leap from Bashan".
The area of Luash may also be considered part of Bashan. "LIASH" means
young male lion and therefore connects with the expression "Dan is a lion's
whelp", i.e. Dan is a young  “Liash” leaping forth from the Bashan:
Luash-Liash may be considered a geographical extension, a "leaping forward"
from the area denoted as Bathan or Bashan.

ii. The names LIASH and LUASH are similar. The place-name Luash is
renderable as "LA'AS" which is close in sound to "Liash".

iii. Near Luash was the entity of Yadi which was an enclave of Judaeans
adjoining the Dananu of Smal and usually ruled  by the same monarch. Dan
and Judah were neighbours in both north and south Israel. Dan in the south
centred on the port of Joppa adjoined the territory of Judah. In the
northern Galilee Judaeans in Gilead of Machir are believed to have bordered
Dan and to be those named "Judah upon Jordan toward the sunrising" in the
Book of Joshua (19;34).  In Jewish tradition Judah and Dan are often
juxtapositioned. Samson the superman-hero came from the Tribe of Dan but
his mother was from Judah. Samson, in some respects, was considered a
forerunner of the Messiah who will come from Judah but his mother,
according  to the Midrash, will be of the Tribe of Dan. Both Judah and
Dan  were represented by a lion, though Dan has additional symbols such  as
the snake and dragon
CHELUBIE ARE RECALLED IN CHALYBONITIS which was to the northwest of
Bathanae (Bashan) on Ptolemy's Map. Yair  was mentioned in Assyrian
inscriptions as the IARI in the region of Chalybonitis and the surrounding
area (including at times in Gauzanitis and elsewhere) raiding and waging
wars on both sides of the Euphrates River14. Since Yadi was settled by
Judaeans and these were united with the Dananu so is the case strengthened
for the Dananu having come from Dan in Israel. (This may seem obvious, but
it is still not conventionally entirely recognised). The name Yair is often
transliterated as "Jair".

         "Jair the son of Menasseh  took all the country of Argob  unto the
coasts of Geshuri and Maachathi; and called them after his own name Bashan
Havoth Jair, unto this day" (Deuteronomy 3;14).

         Hezron (son of Judah) begat both Chelubai and Segub the father of
Jair. Jair was therefore the nephew of Chelubai and familial relationships
often presaged political and settlement combinations amongst the descendants.

iv. In both accounts the conquered and re-settled city is renamed DAN
"after the name of their forefather Dan a son of Israel". This may reflect
a Tribal characteristic  and some have interpreted the phrase "Dan shall be
a serpent by the way, an adder in the path .." (Genesis 49;16)  as
referring to a Tribal Trait of leaving their namesake everywhere, e.g.
"Mahaneh Dan" (Judges 18;12), Don, Daneister, Danaper, Danube, Denmark,
(to be continued)

6. New Book. Support Requested
Brit-Am  has several ongoing projects. At present most existing projects
have been place partially on hold.
We are going ahead with the preparation of a book (tentatively titled
"Biblical Israel") which will prove the Brit-Am case from the Bible.
The book is based on the Biblical studies we have been doing over the
Brit-Am list. New material has been added and much rewritten.
The Book will emphasize those parts of our studies that  enabled us to
identify through the Bible the Identity of the Lost Ten Tribes today.
Work is going well and the book may be ready shortly. This is what we feel
inspired to go ahead with and what is needed at present.
We need assistance to successively complete this work. We request the
assistance of those who feel that this is a work blessed by God and are
able and willing to help us. Please send in offerings and contributions.

7.The Identity of Menasseh with the USA.
Recently someone wrote disparagingly of our identifying the USA with
Menasseh due tot he democratic nature of the USA. First of all, that proof
of identification was only one of several and we request that all of the
proofs be seen together as a whole. In “Joseph” we pointed out that a large
proportion of the early settlers of the USA from Britain came from social
elements that were outside the pale of regular English society. They were
intrinsically democratic as against the stratified elements of the majority
of Britain. A similar but not identical phenomenon was noticed concerning
the migrants from Germany to the USA. These were not findings by us but by
academics working entirely independently of us and probably without
knowledge of us. These facts however did tie in with our evidence. We did
show from the writings of a great and revered authority that the very name
“Menasseh” in Hebrew can be understood to mean “responsible representation”
in a democratic sense. This accords with the national characteristic
conscious “cause-of-being” of the USA. This is not a point to be dismissed.

In the past we also mentioned the following points:
This is on one hand a parable using familiar names for how people act (or
will act) on an individual level. On the other hand it says that Menasseh
(USA?) and Ephraim (Britain & Co) or the Menasseh section of the USA versus
the Ephraim section (?). In the American Civil War the Confederates were
almost de facto allies of Britain against the North. Was this Menasseh
versus Ephraim?
AND TOGETHER THEY ARE AGAINST JUDAH Increased anti-semitism? Negative
policies towards the State of Israel?

We have identified the USA with Menasseh due to the fact that:
1. Groups identified with Menasseh in Britain (and maybe also in Holland
and Germany at that time) dominated the immigrants to the USA at an early
stage of its formation.
2. The USA has aspects of Menasseh including an emphasis on responsible
representative government.
3. The name America is a Latinized version of the Hebrew “Ha-Machiri”.
Machir was the firstborn son of Menasseh. “Machir” in Hebrew can also
denote the principle of Capitalism.
Together with this the USA also contains a large contingent from Ephraim as
well as many non-Israelites. In Biblical times the territory of Menasseh
also held a segment from Ephraim, groups from other Israelite Tribes and
numerous non-Israelites. It appears that in the south of the USA the
dominant element was Ephraim. The American Civil War may be seen as
Menasseh asserting himself over Ephraim. Brit-Am representative in South
Carolina, Mark Mosley, pointed out that the first battle of the Civil War
was at Menasses, i.e. at a place named after Menasseh! Yehonatan David
White saw the Civil War as a kind of replay (or “rectification”?) of the
original split between Judah and Israel. In the first split the Tribes of
Benjamin and Judah had been in the south under the House of David whereas
the Tribes in the north split away. In the American Civil War the south was
led by Jefferson Davis (of the House of David? Davis is short for David’s
son) and by a man of Jewish birth named Judah Philip Benjamin Secretary of
State of the Confederate Sates of America (1862-1865), later queen’s
counsel in England. The South was more aristocratic and Ephraim was
associated with aristocracy many of whom already in Biblical times had
intermarried with the House of David.
Date: Mon, 11 Feb 2002 06:24:43 -0800 (PST)
From: William Rasmussen <brasshalom@yahoo.com>
Subject: Re: Jeremiah 15 no.1
To: Yair Davidi <britam@netvision.net.il>
iPlanet-SMTP-Warning: Lines longer than SMTP allows found and truncated.
Shalom Yair:Excellent piece on Manassas. It is interesting to note that the
North [Yankees], called the first battle "Bull Run". It was named after a
creek that was in the vicinity of Manassas. The symbol of Ephraim is a
bull. The South [Confederates], called the battle "Manassas" after the
nearby town. One wonders why the South who was made up of Ephraim would
call the battle "Manassas" and the North who was made up of Manasseh, would
call the battle "Bull Run". There is a juxtaposition here and perhaps an
unwitting acknowledgement of the two tribes by both the North and the
South. Keep up the fascinating articles. Shalom, Bill Rasmussen
In the first division the northern tribes led by Ephraim split away from
Judah and Benjamin under the House of David. In the second case Ephraim
under Davis with Judah Benjamin attempted to split away but were prevented
from doing so by a man named after Abraham the first Patriarch of the
Hebrew nation. We have identified Britain as dominated by Ephraim and in
the American Civil War Britain did back the Confederate side and considered
intervening militarily on behalf of the Confederates.

8. Place-Names in the USA
In "Joseph" we also identified the American West with that section of
Menasseh known as "Gilead" .
This (and other facts) appears to be justified by Biblical Place-names
adopted by settlers in those regions.
More later.