The BOOK of DANIEL
Daniel Prophesizes about the Greek Persecutions and the Rise of the Maccabees as Prototypical Models Concerning the Latter Days
History is Destined to Repeat Itself!
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[Daniel 11:12] AND WHEN HE
HATH TAKEN AWAY THE MULTITUDE, HIS HEART SHALL BE LIFTED UP; AND HE SHALL CAST
DOWN MANY TEN THOUSANDS: BUT HE SHALL NOT BE STRENGTHENED BY IT.
The King of Egypt shall have inflicted great casualties and taken numerous captives but they had not been used to strengthen his forces.
[Daniel 11:13] FOR THE KING OF THE NORTH SHALL RETURN, AND SHALL SET FORTH A MULTITUDE GREATER THAN THE FORMER, AND SHALL CERTAINLY COME AFTER CERTAIN YEARS WITH A GREAT ARMY AND WITH MUCH RICHES.
Antiochus-iii returned together Philip-v of Macedon and defeated the Ptolemaic forces of Egypt at Banias in the northern Galilee near the site of the Biblical Dan.
[Daniel 11:14] AND IN THOSE TIMES THERE SHALL MANY STAND UP AGAINST THE KING OF THE SOUTH: ALSO THE ROBBERS OF THY PEOPLE SHALL EXALT THEMSELVES TO ESTABLISH THE VISION; BUT THEY SHALL FALL.
[Daniel 11:15] SO THE KING OF THE NORTH SHALL COME, AND CAST UP A MOUNT, AND TAKE THE MOST FENCED CITIES: AND THE ARMS OF THE SOUTH SHALL NOT WITHSTAND, NEITHER HIS CHOSEN PEOPLE, NEITHER SHALL THERE BE ANY STRENGTH TO WITHSTAND.
[Daniel 11:16] BUT HE THAT COMETH AGAINST HIM SHALL DO ACCORDING TO HIS OWN WILL, AND NONE SHALL STAND BEFORE HIM: AND HE SHALL STAND IN THE GLORIOUS LAND, WHICH BY HIS HAND SHALL BE CONSUMED.
Antiochus-iii (the Great) took control of " THE GLORIOUS LAND" meaning Judea which came under Seleucid rule.
[Daniel 11:17] HE SHALL ALSO SET HIS FACE TO ENTER WITH THE STRENGTH OF HIS WHOLE KINGDOM, AND UPRIGHT ONES WITH HIM; THUS SHALL HE DO: AND HE SHALL GIVE HIM THE DAUGHTER OF WOMEN, CORRUPTING HER: BUT SHE SHALL NOT STAND ON HIS SIDE, NEITHER BE FOR HIM.
Antiochus-iii gave his daughter, Cleopatra, to Ptolemy-v hoping through her to control Egypt. Celopatra however gave her loyalty to Ptolemy.
[Daniel 11:18] AFTER THIS SHALL HE TURN HIS FACE UNTO THE ISLES, AND SHALL TAKE MANY: BUT A PRINCE FOR HIS OWN BEHALF SHALL CAUSE THE REPROACH OFFERED BY HIM TO CEASE; WITHOUT HIS OWN REPROACH HE SHALL CAUSE IT TO TURN UPON HIM.
Antiocus-iii then moved against the coastal cities of Asia Minor (present-day Turkey, also referred to as Anatolia) and even crossed the Bosporus establishing a foothold in Thrace. Meanwhile Hannibal of Carthage had fought against the Romans in the west, been defeated, and then fled for to Anatolia where Antiochus accorded him refuge and received advice from him. In 192 Antiochus invaded Greece and was initially successful. The Romans in 191 BCE defeated Antiochus and forced him to retreat to Anatolia. Antiochus had placed his fleet in the hands of Hannibal who was defeated by a Greek-fleet with Roman support at Side in 190 BCE. Antiochus was also attacked and again defeated by the Romans. The Treaty of Apamea (188 BC) forced Antiochus the Great to abandon all European territories and to abandon control of all Anatolia north of the Taurus Mountains that divided Syria from Turkey. Outlying domains of the Seleucid Empire rebelled.
[Daniel 11:19] THEN HE SHALL TURN HIS FACE TOWARD THE FORT OF HIS OWN LAND: BUT HE SHALL STUMBLE AND FALL, AND NOT BE FOUND.
Antiochus died in 181 BCE attempting to rob a temple in Luristan, Persia.
[Daniel 11:20] THEN SHALL STAND UP IN HIS ESTATE A RAISER OF TAXES IN THE GLORY OF THE KINGDOM: BUT WITHIN FEW DAYS HE SHALL BE DESTROYED, NEITHER IN ANGER, NOR IN BATTLE.
Seleucus IV Philopator became ruler and sent one of his general to seize the Temple treasures in Jerusalem. This may be what is meant by him being "A RAISER OF TAXES". Shortly afterwards he was assassinated.
[Daniel 11:21] AND IN HIS ESTATE SHALL STAND UP A VILE PERSON, TO WHOM THEY SHALL NOT GIVE THE HONOUR OF THE KINGDOM: BUT HE SHALL COME IN PEACEABLY, AND OBTAIN THE KINGDOM BY FLATTERIES.
Demetrius the son of Seleucus-iv was a hostage in Rome so a younger brother of Seleucus-iv, Antiochus IV Epiphanes, took over after murdering another infant son of Seleucus-iv who was also in the way of succession.
[Daniel 11:22] AND WITH THE ARMS OF A FLOOD SHALL THEY BE OVERFLOWN FROM BEFORE HIM, AND SHALL BE BROKEN; YEA, ALSO THE PRINCE OF THE COVENANT.
Antiochus-iv consolidated his power. In Judaea he encouraged a Hellenizing Party. The aim of this group was to "modernize" Judaism and to remodel it more in accordance with the prevailing Greek culture. An argument had broken out in family of the High Priest. Consequently Onias went to Egypt and set up a substitute temple at Heliopolis near Cairo. This temple existed until 70 BCE when it was destroyed by the Romans.
[Daniel 11:23] AND AFTER THE LEAGUE MADE WITH HIM HE SHALL WORK DECEITFULLY: FOR HE SHALL COME UP, AND SHALL BECOME STRONG WITH A SMALL PEOPLE.
[Daniel 11:24] HE SHALL ENTER PEACEABLY EVEN UPON THE FATTEST PLACES OF THE PROVINCE; AND HE SHALL DO THAT WHICH HIS FATHERS HAVE NOT DONE, NOR HIS FATHERS' FATHERS; HE SHALL SCATTER AMONG THEM THE PREY, AND SPOIL, AND RICHES: YEA, AND HE SHALL FORECAST HIS DEVICES AGAINST THE STRONG HOLDS, EVEN FOR A TIME.
[Daniel 11:25] AND HE SHALL STIR UP HIS POWER AND HIS COURAGE AGAINST THE KING OF THE SOUTH WITH A GREAT ARMY; AND THE KING OF THE SOUTH SHALL BE STIRRED UP TO BATTLE WITH A VERY GREAT AND MIGHTY ARMY; BUT HE SHALL NOT STAND: FOR THEY SHALL FORECAST DEVICES AGAINST HIM.
The guardians of Ptolemy-vi in Egypt demanded the "return" of "Coele-Syria" ("Hollow Syria") meaning Lebanon and Judea. Antiochus then attacked them and conquered most of Egypt which in order not to alarm Rome he attempted to control indirectly.
[Daniel 11:26] YEA, THEY THAT FEED OF THE PORTION OF HIS MEAT SHALL DESTROY HIM, AND HIS ARMY SHALL OVERFLOW: AND MANY SHALL FALL DOWN SLAIN.
[Daniel 11:27] AND BOTH OF THESE KINGS' HEARTS SHALL BE TO DO MISCHIEF, AND THEY SHALL SPEAK LIES AT ONE TABLE; BUT IT SHALL NOT PROSPER: FOR YET THE END SHALL BE AT THE TIME APPOINTED.
[Daniel 11:28] THEN SHALL HE RETURN INTO HIS LAND WITH GREAT RICHES; AND HIS HEART SHALL BE AGAINST THE HOLY COVENANT; AND HE SHALL DO EXPLOITS, AND RETURN TO HIS OWN LAND.
[Daniel 11:29] AT THE TIME APPOINTED HE SHALL RETURN, AND COME TOWARD THE SOUTH; BUT IT SHALL NOT BE AS THE FORMER, OR AS THE LATTER.
In 168 BCE Antiochus led another attack against Egypt and also sent a fleet to conquer Cyprus.
[Daniel 11:30] FOR THE SHIPS OF CHITTIM SHALL COME AGAINST HIM: THEREFORE HE SHALL BE GRIEVED, AND RETURN, AND HAVE INDIGNATION AGAINST THE HOLY COVENANT: SO SHALL HE DO; HE SHALL EVEN RETURN, AND HAVE INTELLIGENCE WITH THEM THAT FORSAKE THE HOLY COVENANT.
Antiochus was forced to turn back by a Roman army.
THE SHIPS OF CHITTIM here refers to the Romans.
Antiochus here determined to strengthen his hold over his own domain and to create a homogeneous population under his rule. Consequently it was decided to strengthen the Hellenizing Party in Judea and intensify the measures enacted against Judaism.
[Daniel 11:31] AND ARMS SHALL STAND ON HIS PART, AND THEY SHALL POLLUTE THE SANCTUARY OF STRENGTH AND SHALL TAKE AWAY THE DAILY SACRIFICE, AND THEY SHALL PLACE THE ABOMINATION THAT MAKETH DESOLATE.
In 167 BCE Antiochus-iv issued decrees against the practice of the Jewish Religion. The Temple in Jerusalem was dedicated to the Greek god, Zeus Olympias.
[Daniel 11:32] AND SUCH AS DO WICKEDLY AGAINST THE COVENANT SHALL HE CORRUPT BY FLATTERIES: BUT THE PEOPLE THAT DO KNOW THEIR GOD SHALL BE STRONG, AND DO EXPLOITS.
Assimilationist Jews were corrupted by flatteries to aid the Seleucid Greeks in Hellenizing the People.
Even today secular anti-religious Jews who work against the Jewish religion receive financial support from Germany and the EU. The US is also not entirely blameless since American elements such as the CIA and the Ford Foundation have channeled funds to "progressive" pro-peace anti-Judaic elements and homosexual activists in Israel. This has sometimes been done in the name of encouraging democracy and forward thinking.
Circumcision was forbidden. Jews were killed for refusing to eat pork and worship idols. The Revolt of the Maccabees was the result.
[Daniel 11:33] AND THEY THAT UNDERSTAND AMONG THE PEOPLE SHALL INSTRUCT MANY: YET THEY SHALL FALL BY THE SWORD, AND BY FLAME, BY CAPTIVITY, AND BY SPOIL, MANY DAYS.
There was a religious arousal with public instruction being given by the Pharisees or "Sages". This took place in them midst of religious persecution of the vilest kind. Those responsible for the persecution included both pagan Greeks and their Jewish collaborators who had their own "Hellenizing" ideology.
[Daniel 11:34] NOW WHEN THEY SHALL FALL, THEY SHALL BE HOLPEN WITH A LITTLE HELP: BUT MANY SHALL CLEAVE TO THEM WITH FLATTERIES.
Daat Mikra says that as the Maccabee Revolt (led by the Hasmoneans) progressed many of the former "Hellenizers" joined forces with them out of self-interest. Metzudat David explains the verse to say that as the Persecution progressed so too did the forces of the Maccabee resistance grow. Nevertheless many of the people were deluded by Hellenist propaganda (FLATTERIES) to join what still appeared to be the winning side.
[Daniel 11:35] AND SOME OF THEM OF UNDERSTANDING SHALL FALL, TO TRY THEM, AND TO PURGE, AND TO MAKE THEM WHITE, EVEN TO THE TIME OF THE END: BECAUSE IT IS YET FOR A TIME APPOINTED.
Even amongst those who should have known the truth there were those who let themselves be led astray. The reason for this was by Divine Providence in order to purify the people and sort the bad eggs out.
Metsudat David points out that due to the hardships and suffering and an apparent fulfillment of End-Time prophecies there were those who thought that the Messianic Era was at hand. They were mistaken. The TIME APPOINTED had not yet arrived.
For a brief but succinct account of the Maccabees see
"The Wars Of The Jews
The History Of The Destruction Of Jerusalem"
Book I, chapter one.
[Daniel 11:36] AND THE KING SHALL DO ACCORDING TO HIS WILL; AND HE SHALL EXALT HIMSELF, AND MAGNIFY HIMSELF ABOVE EVERY GOD, AND SHALL SPEAK MARVELLOUS THINGS AGAINST THE GOD OF GODS, AND SHALL PROSPER TILL THE INDIGNATION BE ACCOMPLISHED: FOR THAT THAT IS DETERMINED SHALL BE DONE.
Until now the account has quite faithfully followed the historical developments that did indeed occur exactly as described. From here on Scripture seems to depart somewhat and enter another future realm.
In effect we may say that this present chapter of Daniel although apparently dedicated to the Maccabee Period and what preceded it in effect is proto-typical. It is referring to the end times and using historical events as a pattern for future end-time prophecy.
This point is discussed somewhat by Yigal Ariel ("Mor veHadas" 2000) and by Brit-Am at:
Queries on Prophecy
"What Are Prototypical Prophesies?"
[Daniel 11:37] NEITHER SHALL HE REGARD THE GOD OF HIS FATHERS, NOR THE DESIRE OF WOMEN, NOR REGARD ANY GOD: FOR HE SHALL MAGNIFY HIMSELF ABOVE ALL.
[Daniel 11:38] BUT IN HIS ESTATE SHALL HE HONOUR THE GOD OF FORCES: AND A GOD WHOM HIS FATHERS KNEW NOT SHALL HE HONOUR WITH GOLD, AND SILVER, AND WITH PRECIOUS STONES, AND PLEASANT THINGS.
[Daniel 11:39] THUS SHALL HE DO IN THE MOST STRONG HOLDS WITH A STRANGE GOD, WHOM HE SHALL ACKNOWLEDGE AND INCREASE WITH GLORY: AND HE SHALL CAUSE THEM TO RULE OVER MANY, AND SHALL DIVIDE THE LAND FOR GAIN.
[Daniel 11:40] AND AT THE TIME OF THE END SHALL THE KING OF THE SOUTH PUSH AT HIM: AND THE KING OF THE NORTH SHALL COME AGAINST HIM LIKE A WHIRLWIND, WITH CHARIOTS, AND WITH HORSEMEN, AND WITH MANY SHIPS; AND HE SHALL ENTER INTO THE COUNTRIES, AND SHALL OVERFLOW AND PASS OVER.
[Daniel 11:41] HE SHALL ENTER ALSO INTO THE GLORIOUS LAND, AND MANY COUNTRIES SHALL BE OVERTHROWN: BUT THESE SHALL ESCAPE OUT OF HIS HAND, EVEN EDOM, AND MOAB, AND THE CHIEF OF THE CHILDREN OF AMMON.
[Daniel 11:42] HE SHALL STRETCH FORTH HIS HAND ALSO UPON THE COUNTRIES: AND THE LAND OF EGYPT SHALL NOT ESCAPE.
[Daniel 11:43] BUT HE SHALL HAVE POWER OVER THE TREASURES OF GOLD AND OF SILVER, AND OVER ALL THE PRECIOUS THINGS OF EGYPT: AND THE LIBYANS AND THE ETHIOPIANS SHALL BE AT HIS STEPS.
[Daniel 11:44] BUT TIDINGS OUT OF THE EAST AND OUT OF THE NORTH SHALL TROUBLE HIM: THEREFORE HE SHALL GO FORTH WITH GREAT FURY TO DESTROY, AND UTTERLY TO MAKE AWAY MANY.
[Daniel 11:45] AND HE SHALL PLANT THE TABERNACLES OF HIS PALACE BETWEEN THE SEAS IN THE GLORIOUS HOLY MOUNTAIN; YET HE SHALL COME TO HIS END, AND NONE SHALL HELP HIM.
The Book of Daniel
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