"Brit-Am Now"-721
1. History: 1850, the Don Pacifico Incident
2. DNA  overview of nations
3. The Identification of Reuben with France in French

1. History: 1850, the Don Pacifico Incident
(a) Account 1.
Don David Pacifico is a Jewish Portuguese merchant who was born in
Gibraltar, thus giving him a claim to British citizenship. In 1847, an
anti-Semitic mob burns his house in Greece. When the Greek government
refuses compensation, he asks Britain to intervene. Greek independence
is guaranteed by Russia and France, and Britain is obliged to consult
them before acting. However, Foreign Secretary Palmerston unilaterally orders
a blockade of the Greek coast. This lasts for two years, as do protests
and threatening gestures from Russia and France.

Finally, in 1850, British forces seize Greek merchant ships and hold
them until Greece agrees to compensate Don Pacifico. Palmerston is criticised
in Parliament, but defends himself robustly, comparing Britain to the
Roman empire and declaring that it must defend all its citizens worldwide.
He wins public support, but alienates France and Russia. This is the first
of many gunboat ventures that Palmerston will undertake, to assert
British power and boost its trade.

(b) Account 2.
by : Joseph Jacobs

An affair arising out of a claim made on the Greek government by one
David Pacifico, commonly known as "Don Pacifico" (born a British subject at
Gibraltar 1784; died in London April 12, 1854). Pacifico first began
business at Lagos, Portugal, in 1812, but owing to sympathy with the
Liberals his property was confiscated by Don Miguel. He was,
nevertheless, appointed Portuguese consul at Morocco Feb. 28, 1835, and two years
later Portuguese consul-general to Greece. Owing to some complaints he was
dismissed from this latter post Jan. 4, 1842; but he continued to reside
at Athens. When the Easter burning of Judas Iscariot customary in that
city was given up in 1847 at the request of the Rothschilds, the mob in
revenge burned down Pacifico's house, whereupon he claimed compensation to the
amount of A326,618. When this rather preposterous claim, as well as
others, including one of G. Finlay, the Greek historian, was not treated
seriously by the Greek government, Lord Palmerston sent a British fleet to
Piraus (1850), and seized all the ships in the harbor. The French government
also sent a commission, which could not agree with the English claimants;
and the Pacifico case thereupon resulted in a general quarrel, in the course
of which the French ambassador took the serious step of withdrawing from
London. Palmerston was censured for his action in the matter by the
House of Lords (June 18, 1850), but was reassured by a vote of confidence
passed in the House of Commons by a majority of 46.

Ultimately Pacifico received 120,000 drachmas and A3500 in settlement
of his claims; and with this sum he passed the rest of his life in London.

(c) Account 3.

<<Don Pacifico, a Portuguese Jewish merchant born in Gibraltar, had had
his life threatened and his house destroyed in an  anti-Semitc riot in

Since his birth in Gibraltar made Him a British subject , the British
government demanded restitution. When the Greeks were slow to act,
Palmerston dispatched part of the Mediterranean fleet to seize Greek
shipping in Athen's port of Piraeus and display  its guns across the
<<The international outcry was tremendous. France withdrew its
from London; even the House of lords raised a vote of censure against
Palmerston. But Palmerston replied that just as in the days of the
Roman  Empire, a Roman citizen  was free from any unlawful arrest or
attack, "so also a British subject, in whatever land he may be, shall
feel confident that the watchful eye and strong arm of England will protect
him against injustice and wrong." The remark made Palmerston the most
popular politician in Britain.>>
Arthur Herman, "To Rule the Waves. How the British Navy Shaped the
Modern World", 2004, p.423

2. DNA  overview of nations

DNA tracing of ancestry at present assumes:
(a) No recombination, i.e. no influence on markers used of intermarriage.
(b) No environmental influence to trigger of changes in DNA markers.
Both these assumptions may well be mistaken.

Brit-Am disagrees with DNA premises but regard it as a tool (like
language) that in some contexts may be of assistance.
Article contains a few unexplained technical terms etc
and misconceptions but is good for showing supposed DNA connections between
different peoples though even here a few inaccuracies were noticed.

Some high points:
  Australian Aboriginals (>65%) and
Maoris (>80%) are both Y haplogroup C along with Mongols (up to 60%)
and others including  Amerindians in Alaska (say some 42%) and others
such as  the Cheyenne (>14%) and Apache (>12%) in USA.

<<Previously, Huxley (1870) had classified the Australian Aboriginal
as being the advance guard of the Dravidians that left the Mediterranean
and Egypt and moved into India and on to Australia. He regarded the Dekkan
Hill tribes, and more tenuously the Ancient Egyptians, as the only links
with Aboriginal Australians >>.

  <<There are two major YDNA groups in Australia and they are C and K
Haplogroups with an early RxR1 Haplogroup >10% which is only found in
any significance in Cameroon (>40%) in Africa...The vast majority of
Europeans are R1a and R1b and might be considered to have descended from this
earlier RxR1 DNA link.>>
[R groups also similar to Q of most Amerindians?]

Japanese same basic stock (D) as Tibet mixed with Chinese, Mongols, and

Haplogroup E

The E groups are found in Africa with smaller incidence in the Middle
East and Southern Europe.

ExE3b is high in Mali (60%), Cameroon (45%), amongst the pygmy (65%) and
in SA (55% approx). This group has low incidence in the Sudan and Ethiopia.

E3b is very high in Morocco (approx 75%) with an incidence of Hg J at
approx 10%. There is significant incidence in Mali (25%), Sudan (25%),
and Ethiopia (55%,) SA (less than 10%). 15% of Middle East Arabs and
Persians are E3b and some 10% of Italians, and Iberians and between 5% and 10%
of Germans and Russians are E3b and up to 5% of Georgians and Armenians
are E3b. East European Jews are 25% E3b.

<<Professor Cyrus Gordon also holds the early Minoans to be Semites
and their language Linear A as being Semitic. His work on Linear A has been
met  with controversy.

The Normans ... are predominantly R1b but they contain other DNA
groups such as I.

Over 35% of the Northern French are Haplogroups I and J. Approximately
35% of the Anglo Saxons are Middle East Hg. I with some small amount of J.
Approximately 40% of English are Middle Eastern and seemingly Semites.
The majority of all NW Celts and Anglo-Saxons are R1b ...The obvious
exception is to the east where the Slavs are R1a and the largest R1a divisions
among the horde coming into the North West was among the Norwegians at about
Haplogroup R has RxR1 basic from Africa to India to Australia.

<<R1a comprises the majority of the Slavs and Indo/Aryans while
Haplogroup R1b comprises the bulk of the West Europeans both Celts and
Anglo-Saxon/Norman. R1a extends into Germany and Norway in greater
quantities than found elsewhere in Western Europe.
Female mtDNA:
<<What is important in this aspect is that H constitutes 21% of
Ashkenazi Jewish MTDNA and that DNA is the major MTDNA sequence of the entire
European population at just under 50% of Iceland to up to 60% of the
British Isles and 65% of Iberia and 50% of France. It slowly decreases
as the populations goes east. It drops to 25% among the Turks and
Palestine/Egyptians and drops further among the Kurds, Persians, South
Pakistanis and Hazara with an increase to over 22% among the Uzbeks and
up to 30% in northern Russia among the Komi.

3. The Identification of Reuben with France in French