"Brit-Am Now"-837
1. DNA: Theory in Trouble?
2. DNA: Voles Again: "Junk" DNA fulfills social function
3. Answer to Question on Race: Illustrations
4. Kipling's Poems
5. New Feature: Pictures of Ancient Israelites

1. DNA: Theory in Trouble?
Rodent's bizarre traits deepen mystery of genetics, evolution

WEST LAFAYETTE, Ind. A shadowy rodent has potential to shed light on human genetics and the mysteries of evolution.
[see photo]

Small rodents often confused for mice, except with shorter tails and beady eyes, voles live throughout the Northern Hemisphere and are often considered agricultural pests because they eat vegetation.

The study focuses on 60 species...Within the genus (the level of taxonomic classification above species), the number of chromosomes in voles ranges from 17-64. DeWoody said that this is an unusual finding, since species within a single genus often have the same chromosome number.

Among the vole's other bizarre genetic traits:

In one species, the X chromosome, one of the two sex-determining chromosomes (the other being the Y), contains about 20 percent of the entire genome. Sex chromosomes normally contain much less genetic information.

In another species, females possess large portions of the Y (male) chromosome.

In yet another species, males and females have different chromosome numbers, which is uncommon in animals.

A final "counterintuitive oddity" is that despite genetic variation, all voles look alike, said DeWoody's former graduate student and study co-author Deb Triant.

"All voles look very similar, and many species are completely indistinguishable," DeWoody said.

In one particular instance, DeWoody was unable to differentiate between two species even after close examination and analysis of their cranial structure; only genetic tests could reveal the difference.

Nevertheless, voles are perfectly adept at recognizing those of their own species.

See also:
Voles Throw Evolutionary Genetics Into Disarray   09/16/2006

2. DNA: Voles Again: "Junk" DNA fulfills social function

Rodent Social Behavior Encoded in Junk DNA

The researchers traced social behavior traits, such as monogamy, to seeming glitches in DNA that determines when and where a gene turns on. The length of these repeating sequences, once dismissed as mere junk DNA, in the gene that codes for a key hormone receptor determined male-female relations and parenting behaviors in a species of voles.

"It was considered junk DNA because it didn't seem to have any function," noted Hammock.

Far from being junk, the repetitive DNA sequences, which are highly prone to mutate rapidly, may ultimately exert their influence through complex interactions with other genes to produce individual differences and social diversity, according to Young.

3. Answer to Question on Race: Illustrations
The Middle East is hot. Should not the Lost Tribes be darkish as expected of people originating in a hot climate?
Answer includes photos of dark Elamites
and blond Australian Aborigines.

4. Kipling's Poems
From: surfer11 <>
Subject: [origin of nations] Kipling's Poems

You can also find some of Kipling's poem's here:,%20papers/kipling.htm


5. New Feature: Pictures of Ancient Israelites
This feature will be developed gradually but already it
is well worth looking at.