Chapter Nine


    The Prophet Jeremiah on the simple level was mainly occupied with events occurring in his own time and mainly to Judah. He did however speak of the Lost Ten Tribes and their return.

The Lost Tribes Had Their Membership Suspended
    Jeremiah spoke of the northern tribes who were exiled because of their sins (3:6-7 cf. 2-Kings chapters 17 and 18). The exiled tribes had been divorced by God (3:8). Legislatively, their membership in Israel as a collectively obliged body was suspended. Temporarily they were no longer legally obligated by the Mosaic Code (cf. Hosea 1:9, Yebamot 17). This will change in the future.

The Jews of Judah Will Help Bring them back
    In the latter Times Jews from Judah shall go unto the Ten Tribes in the “North Country” and urge them to return to the land of Israel (3:18).

<<BEHOLD THOU ART FAIR, MY LOVE, YEA PLEASANT, ALSO OUR BED IS GREEN (Song of Solomon 1;16). “Israel says: Behold thou art fair, my love When you will take retribution from the worshippers of idols. Yea pleasant when you pay the reward of those who fear you. Also our bed…: These are the “Ten Tribes.” [In Hebrew bed is “eres” while ten is “eser” and uses the same letters, and “our bed” (erseynu) sounds like “our ten” (esereynu).] They are those who were exiled beyond the Sambation River. The exiles of Judah and Benyamin [i.e. the present-day “Jews”] are destined to go unto them and bring them back in order to merit with them the Messianic Era and life in the World-To-Come. This is as it says, “In those days the house of Judah shall go unto the house of Israel and they shall come together out of the land of the north unto the land that I have given for an inheritance unto your fathers” (Jeremiah 3;18).

-Yalkut Shimeoni, Song of Solomon 905.
The verse (3:18) should be read according to the above as
<<THE HOUSE OF JUDAH SHALL GO UNTO [rather than “WALK WITH”] THE HOUSE OF ISRAEL>>.  People from Judah and Benjamin (i.e. legal Jews) shall go unto the Lost Ten Tribes who are beyond the Sambation River. The Sambation River means Israelite Exiles who migrated to the west. The simple meaning is that Jews from Judah will go unto the Lost Tribes to bring them back. God (Jeremiah 3:22) is calling to the Lost Ten Tribes of Israel in the Land of the North to return to HIM. They will no longer worship the Baal (9:14). Jeremiah refers to the reconciliation of Judah and Israel when God will be worshipped by all the families of Israel (31:1,27). “Watchmen” from the Mount of Ephraim will put out a call to return to Jerusalem. The word for “Watchmen” is “Notsrim” which in Modern Hebrew means “Christians”. The Lost Ten Tribes before their return and reconciliation will be practicing forms of Christianity1. They will return from the North Country and from the coasts of the earth (31:8). God says, <<I AM A FATHER TO ISRAEL, AND EPHRAIM IS MY FIRSTBORN>> (31:9).

The Return of John Bull
    The isles should be aware that God will gather in the scattered ones of Israel (31:10). Rachel (the mother of Joseph) will no longer have to weep over the exile of her children for they will return (31:15-16). Ephraim (31:18) is called a “bullock” or young bull. In Hebrew “bullock” is “aegel”. Historically this very same name, “Aegel”, pronounced in the same way, was an alternative form for the ethnic term “Angle”. The Angles gave England (i.e. “Angle-land”) its name. Together with the Saxons, Jutes, Vandals, and others the Angles conquered from the Celts the land that was later named England.  The Angles were also called “Aegels”. The appellations “Angle” and “Aegel” were employed interchangeably. The Hebrew word for young bull is “Aegel”. Rashi (Rabbi Shlomo Yistchaki 1040-1105 CE) was the foremost Medieval Jewish Commentator. In commentating on this verse (Jeremiah 31:18) Rashi states that the Hebrew word “Aegel” (Young Bull) was a name applied to Ephraim. This was also another name applied to the English. The English now nickname themselves “John Bull”. This is an important point: the verse is strongly indicating that the English (Angles) are to be identified with Ephraim.

The Dolmens
    Jeremiah (31:21) refers to dolmens which are large stones set table fashion over others and often covered by large piles of rocks and stone. The dolmens and other related stone monuments form a connecting  link between Israel, Britain, West France, and Scandinavia.

    Abarbanel: <<The prophet therefore spoke concerning the Kingdom of Israel [of the Ten Tribes] SET THEE UP WAYMARKS saying that when you go into Exile make signs by the routes and waymarks like piles of rocks [i.e. cairns] or stone monuments [Hebrew: Matzavah, i.e. dolmen] so that you may set your heart to the route and remember in order that you may return in the way you went in, return to your city.>>

The “WAYMARKS” the Prophet is referring to were megalithic monuments. These monuments were set up by Israelites after they were exiled. Some authorities date many of these monuments to a much earlier period. This is a mistake. Even however if the monuments in question were not set up by Israelites but had existed previously the fact remains that they happened to all lie along the path of Israelite migration westward. It is this fact that Jeremiah is telling the Israelites (i.e. he is telling us) to take note of. According to the “Radak” (Rabbi David Kimchi, 1157-1236) of Narbonne, France, the verse should be understood to say:

<<“SET YOURSELF UP WAYMARKS” (Jeremiah 31): This was directed to the Community of Israel, that in the generation when they would be exiled they should set up waymarks [i.e. “tsionim”] such as PILED-UP STONES OR STONE MONUMENTS. The purpose of these monuments was to mark the paths [of migration for the sake of future recognition]. The meaning was to say that even though you will be exiled, hope is not lost and you are still destined to return to these your cities. “MAKE YOURSELF HIGH HEAPS” [Hebrew: “tamrurim”]. i.e. <<Set yourself up stone monuments [menhirs, dolmens] and high heaps of stones [cairns] [i.e. “Megalithic” monuments!]. Set your heart towards the prepared way: The way in which you went. Turn back o virgin of Israel, return unto these cities of yours.>>

    Jeremiah is saying that (for whatever reason) the exiled Israelites will have stone monuments set up. Through these monuments Jeremiah predicts that it will be possible in the future to learn of the Israelite paths of migration away from the Land of Israel.  Once this is learned it will serve as a means by which they may be persuaded to return.

The Future
    In the future descendants of King David and of the Levites will be exceedingly numerous (33:22). The seed of Jacob will return and the seed of David will rule over them (33:26). The Children of Israel and the Children of Judah in the Last Days will seek the LORD their God (50:4). Israel is the Battle-ax of God (51:20) which HE uses to punish the non-Israelite nations.

    Jeremiah described the Lost Ten Tribes of Israel, especially “Ephraim” as an “Aegel” or Angle, a “John Bull”. Jeremiah said that the path of the dolmens in the future would serve as an archaeological indication of the path of migration by which Ephraim could know where he came from and how he is to return.  

    Ezekiel (37:15-28) saw the return of the Ten Tribes as an indispensable requirement for the deliverance of Israel and Judah. The stranger who sojourns with us and identifies with us will have the same rights as us (Ezekiel 47:22). He also has the same responsibilities (14:7-8). God will once again accept Judah and all Israel (16:62).   Ezekiel (23:2-3) indicates that from the very beginning the two sections of the Children of Israel, i.e. “Judah” and “Israel” or “Ephraim” were distinct entities with their own predispositions.   The Book of Ezekiel at its primary level is mainly concerned with Judah but here and there it contains messages for the Lost Ten Tribes of the greatest importance. Ezekiel refers to the three stages of exile of the Lost Ten Tribes (11:14 according to Commentators). They will be ingathered (11:17). God is still with them (11:16). Ezekiel (11:18) hints that first the exiles will return to the Land of Israel and after that they shall put away their idols and keep the Law (11:2). Ezekiel says that Judah has an obligation to help the Lost Ten Tribes return. The complete return of Judah is dependent upon the return of “Samaria” (16:53, 55, 61) meaning the Ten Tribes especially Manasseh. Manasseh today is mainly the USA. God will renew His covenant with Judah and with Israel (16:62). Ezekiel (chapter 26) describes the movement of Tyre to Tarshish in Spain. He describes the international mercantile connections of Tyre (chapter 27).  He recalls Dan and Javan (the Greeks) together (27:19) as trading with Tyre and engaged in metallurgical production.

    Ezekiel 37 speaks of dead bodies being resurrected. He than goes on to say that God told him to take the stick (in Hebrew “etz” which can also mean “wood”, or “tree”) and to write upon it, “For Judah and for the Children of Israel who are joined to him”, i.e. “For the Jews”. He was told to take another stick and write upon it, “For Joseph, the stick of Ephraim and for all the House of Israel who are joined unto him” (37:16). He was then told to join them together and they were to be one (37:17). Bystanders saw Ezekiel fulfill these symbolic actions and asked him what their meaning was? He replied that “Judah” and “Israel” (the Lost Ten Tribes) are destined to be (37:19-21) gathered together into the land of Israel and there re-united. They are to become one kingdom and one king shall rule over them (37:22). This King will be either a descendant of David or King David himself. They shall keep the Law (37:24). God will dwell amongst them and the Tabernacle-Temple will be rebuilt (37:27-28).

    We learn from this the two entities “Judah” and “Joseph” will remain separate from each other until the end times. Commentators saw the niceties of the Hebrew original in the above passage as indicating that: (a) The re-unification must take place initially through our own initiative. Ezekiel is told to take the sticks and write upon them and join them together in his own hands but then God makes them one in HIS hand (37:19). The Temple will be rebuilt (chapter 43). The land of Great Israel from the Nile to the Euphrates and beyond will be divided up amongst the twelve Tribes of Israel (chapter 47). The non-Israelite stranger who dwells among you will receive an inheritance together with the Tribe he dwelt amongst (47:22).